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Full text of "StatUS: a monthly chartbook of social and economic trends. September 1976. The elderly."

6 y^~-c^^^-^,yt/ 

SEPTEMBER 1976 



A MONTHLY CHARTBOOK OF 
SOCIAL&ECONOMIC TRENDS 




PEOPLE 



COMMUNITY 




ECONOMY 



Compiled by the Federal Statistical System 



ST76-3 



OTHER 
TRENDS 




message 
from the 
president 



America's present 
older citizens are a re- 
markable generation. Born 
before and around the turn 
of the century, they have 
been the authors of 
dramatic chapters in 
America's history. They 
extended the Nation's 
frontiers, transformed 
America into an industrial 
giant, sustained their 
families through the 
Great Depression and helped 
defeat tyranny in two 
world wars. They made 
America, in their lifetimes, 
a great nation, the re- 
cognized leader of the 
free world. 



All other Americans are 
deeply indebted to this 
senior generation. And 
the most practical way to 
meet that obligation is 
to deal with the special 
needs and problems which 
accompany old age. Toward 
that end, STATUS magazine 
performs an invaluable 
service this month by pre- 
senting a statistical 
profile of the older 
American. STATUS graphically 
illuminates the housing, 
health, occupational, in- 
come, and other conditions 
of older Americans, knowl- 
edge indispensible to the 
formation of intelligent 
responses to their needs. What 
many of our older citizens 
want most is the opportunity 
to continue leading useful, 
productive lives, which is 
the same spirit that enabled 
them to help create a great 
nation. 



^^e. 





A MONTHLY CHARTBOOK OF 
SOCIAL& ECONOMIC TRENDS 



SEPTEMBER 1976 

ST76-3 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

Information for the special 
feature on the elderly was 
prepared by Elmore J. Seraile 
of the Population Division, 
Bureau of the Census, under 
the general direction of 
Charles Johnson, Assistant 
Chief, and Meyer Zitter, 
Chief. 



Section I 

PEOPLE 

World Population 4-5 

Population and Connponents 
of Change 6 

Household and Family 
Characteristics 7-8 

Personal Income 9 

Federal Individual Income 
Tax Returns 10-11 

Public Income Maintenance 
Programs 12-15 

Households Purchasing 
Food Stamps 16 

International 
Unemployment 17 

Employment & 
Unemployment 18-20 

Duration of Unemployment & 
Help-Wanted Index 21 

Health-Ambulatory Care 22 



Special Feature 

THE ELDERLY 

Elderly in the U.S. 
Population 24-25 

Living Arrangements 
of the Elderly 26-27 

Geographic Characteristics 
of the Elderly 28 

Educational Attainment 
of the Elderly 29 

Labor Force Participation 
Rates 30 

Occupations of the 
Elderly 31 

Median Income of the 
Elderly 32 

Characteristics of the 
Low-Income Elderly 33 

Voter Participation Rates 34 

Major Causes of Death 
for the Elderly 35 

Crime Victimization Rates 
for the Elderly 36 

Licensed Drivers Among 
the Elderly 37 

Elderly Veterans 38 
Section II 

COMMUNITY 

Metropolitan Area Residential 
Construction 40-41 

Housing Vacancies 42 

Black Elected Officials 43 

Public Employment 44-45 



Map of the Month 

Combination of Percent 
of Population 65 Years Old 
and Over, 1975, and 
Per Capita Income, 1974, 
U.S. Counties 
46-49 

Mental Health 50-51 

Education— Earned Degrees 
Conferred 52 

Section III 

ECONOMY 

Gross National Product 54-55 

Corporate Profits 56 

Business Conditions 
Indicators 57 

Industrial Production 58 

Capacity Utilization 
of Materials 59 

Advance Report on 
Manufacturers' Durable 
Goods 60 

Manufacturing & Trade 
Sales & Inventories 61 

Advance Retail Sales— July 62 

Average Residential 
Construction Time 63 

Housing Starts & Permits 64 

Value of New Construction 65 



Consumer Price Index 66 

Wholesale Price Index 67 

Agricultural Prices 68 

Productivity & Costs 69 

World Trade 70-71 

Exports & Imports 72 

Federal Government 
Receipts & Expenditures 
73 

Consumer Installment 
Credit 74 

Section IV 

OTHER TRENDS 

Public Use of National 
Parks 76-77 

Patent Activity 78-79 

Drug Abuse 80-81 

Energy Use in 
Manufacturing 82-84 

Women-Owned 
Businesses 85 

NOTES AND 

DEFINITIONS 

86-89 

SOURCES 
90-91 

INDEX 
92-93 



Compiled by the Federal Statistical System 



U.S. Department 
of Commerce 

Elliot L. Richardson, Secretary 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 
Vincent P. Barabba, Director 
Robert L. Hagan, Deputy Director 
Shirley Kaliek, Associate Director 

for Economic Fields 
Daniel B. Levine, Associate Director 

for Demographic Fields 



Executive Office of the President, 
Office of Management and Budget 

James T. Lynn, Director 

Paul H. O'Neill, Deputy Director 

Fernando Oaxaca, Associate Director 

for Management and Operations 
Joseph W. Duncan, Chief Statistician 
C. Louis Kincannon, Project Coordinator 



ECONOMIC SURVEYS DIVISION 
Roger H. Bugenhagen, Chief 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



This publication is prepared in the 
Economic Surveys Division, Bureau 
of the Census, under the general 
direction of Roger Bugenhagen, 
assisted by Peter Ohs, Assistant 
Division Chief. John Deshaies, 
Chief, Chartbook Branch, 
assisted by Laurie Griffin and 
James C. Richardson, is directly 
responsible for the technical 
review and supervision of the 
report; Lorraine Tischler, 
Patricia Russell, Eleanor 
Clark, Dennis Gosier, and 
Queen Ware served as the major 
analysts in the preparation of 
graphic materials. Raymond L. 
Bancroft of the Public Informa- 
tion Office provided valuable 
editorial assistance. Publica- 
tion design sen/ices were pro- 
vided by Nicholas Preftakes, 
Publications Services Division, 
with editing by C. Maureen Padgett, 
also of Publications Services 
Division. Graphics systems 
were developed under the direc- 
tion of Claggett Jones, Chief 
of the Systems Software 
Division, with the assistance 



of Lawrence Cornish. 

All cartographic displays 
appearing in STATUS were pre- 
pared by Geography Division 
under the general direction 
of Jacob Silver, Division 
Chief, with technical 
direction by Frederick R. 
Broome, assisted by Roy F. 
Borgstede. 

This publication is pre- 
fjared under the general 
guidance of an editorial 
committee established by 
the Office of Management 
and Budget. The committee 
consists of the following 
persons: Joseph W. Duncan, Chair- 
man, and C. Louis Kincannon, 
Executive Secretary, Office 
of Management and Budget; 
Donald Barrowman, Department 
of Agriculture; Morris R. Goldman, 
Bureau of Economic Analysis, and 
Shirley Kaliek, Bureau of the 
Census, Department of Commerce; 
Albert H. Linden, Jr., Federal 
Energy Administration; John L. 
Stone, Federal Reserve Board; 
Marie D. Elderidge, National Center 



for Education Statistics; Jacob J. 
Feldman, National Center for 
Health Statistics; Thomas Staples, 
Social Security Administration, and 
Gooloo Wunderllch, Office of the 
Assistant Secretary for Health, 
Department of Health, Education, 
and Welfare; Robert E. Johnson, Jr., 
Department of the Interior; Harry 
Bratt, Department of Justice; 
Janet Norwood, Department of 
Labor; and William Smith, Internal 
Revenue Service, Department of 
Treasury. 

The planning and development of 
content for this publication were 
carried out with the assistance of a 
technical committee established 
by the Office of Management and 
Budget. The committee members 
are shown on the Inside of the back 
cover. 

The cooperation of various govern- 
ment and private agencies which 
provide data is gratefully acknowl- 
edged. Agencies furnishing data are 
Indicated on the appropriate chart 
and also listed in the Sources of 
Data. 



The Secretary of Commerce has 
determined that the publication 
of this periodical is necessary In 
the transaction of the public 
business of this Department. Use of 
funds for printing this publication 
has been approved by the Director, 
Office of Management and Budget, 
through October 1, 1977. 

SUGGESTED 
CITATION 

United States. Bureau of the Census. 

STATUS: a monthly chartbook 
of social and economic trends. 
Washington. 

Prepared for the Office of 
Management and Budget. 

"Compiled by the Federal 
Statistical System." 

76-600037 

For sale by the Subscriber 
Services Section, Bureau of the 
Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. 
Price: $3.60 per copy. 



INTRODUCTION 



STATUS is a chartbook which 
depicts important social and 
economic trends and events. 
Its purpose is to breathe 
life into the many numbers 
which spill daily from the 
multiple and diverse agencies 
of the Federal Statistical 
System. 

STATUS is a graphic pre- 
sentation of current statis- 
tical information focussing 
on major social and economic 
conditions within the United 
States. There is an extensive 
use of color in presenting 



charts and maps. The major 
objective of the chartbook is 
to digest complex statistical 
information, and to relay this 
information in a readily under- 
standable form, quickly and 
accurately. The graphic 
techniques used represent the 
current "state of the art." 
However, experimentation with 
different and innovative tech- 
niques is continuous, and as 
new techniques are developed 
they will be applied. The 
goal is to constantly improve 
the understandability of 



timely, important statistical 
information. 

STATUS has been designed 
for different audiences. It 
is not intended for the ex- 
clusive use of professional 
statisticians, economists, 
or other social scientists. 
Although it will be useful 
for the professional, it is 
directed also at the general 
public and decisionmakers 
and policymakers in numerous 
fields of business, govern- 
ment, and academia. 

In each edition of STATUS, 



major sections provide current 
statistical graphic informa- 
tion about the people, the 
community, and economy, and 
other areas such as science 
and the environment. Each 
issue contains a special fea- 
ture which covers in greater 
depth a subject of major 
public interest. Also, a 
special map will be desig- 
nated each month to identify 
geographic areas of special 
concern. 

(Continued on page 94) 



Section I 



people 



World Population 

World Population: 1950 4 

Population Growth: 
1950-1975 4 

World Population: 1975 4 

World Population, by 
Continent: 1950-1975 5 

Average Annual Population 
Growth Rates, by "More" 
and "Less" Developed 
Regions: 1950-1975 5 

Average Annual Population 
Growth Rates, by Continent: 
1950-1975 5 

Population & 
Components of Change 

Population of the United 
States, Including Armed 
Forces Overseas: July 1, 
1900 to July 1, 1976 6 

Components of Population 
Change, by Month: 
1970-1976 6 

Household and Family 
Characteristics 

Family and Nonfamily 
Households as a Percent of 
All Households: 1960, 1970, 
and 1976 7 

Type of Family as a Percent 
of All Families, by Race: 
1970 and 1976 7 

Persons Under 18 Years Old 
Living With Both Parents, 
by Race: 1970 and 1976 8 

Average Size of Households 
and Families: 1960, 1970, 
and 1976 8 



Personal Income 

Personal Income 9 

Total Wage and Salary 
Disbursements 9 

Federal Individual 
Income Tax Returns 

Returns Filed, by Size of 
Adjusted Gross Income: 
1965-1974 10 

Components of Adjusted 
Gross Income: 1974 10 

Average Federal Individual 
Income Tax: 1950-1974 11 

Average Federal Individual 
Income Tax as a Percent of 
Adjusted Gross Income: 
1950-1974 11 

Percentage of All Nontaxable 
Returns, by Size of 
Adjusted Gross Income: 1960, 
1964, 1970, and 1974 11 

Public Income- 
Maintenance Programs 

Public Income-Maintenance 
Payments 12 

Percent of Personal 
Income 12 

Public Insurance Programs 
Coverage 

Paid Civilian Employment 
Covered by Social Insurance 
Programs: December 1973 13 




Old Age, Survivors — 
Disability Insurance 

Amount of Cash Benefits 13 

Number of Cash Benefits 13 

Persons Receiving Cash 
Benefits UnderOASDHI, 
by Type 13 

Aid to Families With 
Dependent Children 

Total Money Payments 14 

Money Payments- 
Unemployed- Father Segment 
14 

Total Recipients 14 

Recipients— Unemployed- 
Father Segment 14 

Unemployment 
Insurance— State Laws 

Total Benefits Paid 14 
Recipients 14 

Supplemental Security 
Income 

Payments 15 
Recipients 15 
Households Purchasing 
Food Stamps 

Food Stamp Households, by 
Labor Force Status of Head: 
Selected Periods 16 

Food Stamp Households, by 
Marital Status of Head: 
July 1975 16 

Food Stamp Households, by 
Age of Head: Selected 
Periods 16 



Percent of Low- Income 
Families Participating in 
Food Stamp Program, by Sex 
and Race of Head: 1974 16 

International 
Unemployment 

Unemployment Rates in 
Selected Industrial Nations 17 

Employment & 
Unemployment 

Civilian Labor Force 
and Employment 18 

Unemployment Rates 18 

Unemployment Rates, by 
Age, Sex, and Race 19 

Unemployment Rates, 
by Occupation 20 

Unemployment Rates, 
by Industry 20 

Duration of Unemploy- 
ment & Help-Wanted Index 

Duration of Unemployment 21 

Average (Mean) Duration 21 

Help-Wanted Advertising 21 

Health— Ambulatory Care 

Office Visits to Physicians 
of All Specialties: 1974 22 

Prior Visit Status— General 
and Family Physicians: 1974 
22 

Treatments or Sen/ices— General 
and Family Physicians: 1974 
22 

Disposition of Patient- 
General and Family Physicians: 
1974 22 



WORLD POPULATION 



Less Developed Areas 
Now Account for 72% 
of World Population 

It is estimated that the world 
population reached about 4 
billion persons in mid-1975 
having added almost 1.5 bil- 
lion people, or an increase of 
57 percent, during the quarter 
century since 1950. 

Population growth has not 
been distributed evenly among 



the various regions of the 
world. In particular, growth 
has been and continues to be 
much more rapid in the less 
developed regions. 

As a result of the dif- 
ferences in growth rates 
between the more and less 
developed regions, four- 
fifths of world population 
growth between 1950 and 1975 
took place in the less de- 
veloped regions, thus in- 



creasing their share of 
world population from 66 per- 
cent in 1950 to 72 percent 
in 1975. 



World Population: 1950 



AUSTRALIA & 
/NEWZEALAND 



EUROPE 
15.4';i 



TEMPERATE 

so. AMERICA 

1 .0% 

other/ 
latin america 

5.5% 




INDIA 
15.0% 



AFRICA 

8.6% 



OTHER ASIA 
15.2% 



•OTHER OCEANIA 0.1% 



2.543 BILLION 



Population Growth: 1950-1975 



JAPAN 
1.9%\ 
NORTHERN AMERICA 4.8°/ 
USSR 5.1%. 
EUROPE 5.6%. 
TEMPERATE 
SO. AMERICA' 
1.0% 
OTHER 
LATIN AMERICA' 
9.9% 

AFRICA 
12.4% 



AUSTRALIA & 
NEWZEALAND 
.4% 



CHINA (PRO 
19.7% 




OTHER ASIA 
23.0% 



1.453 BILLION 



OTHER OCEANIA 0.1% 



World Population: 1975 




JAPAN AUSTRALIA & 
,"' /NEWZEALAND 
\ 1 0.4% 












NORTHERN AMERICA 






5.9%' 


k^' " 


■--^^^ 






USSR y^ 


^ \ 


"^^^ CHINA (PRO 






6.4% \V^ \ 


\\ 


^^^^^21.1% 






EUROPE M \ 


x\\ 


^ 






11.9%"~» 


^ 


C^^ 






TEMPERATE L-— ^-::==^ 


^"'xl 


X. :^B_ INDIA 






SO. AMERICA ^^^"""^ 


X \ W ^^■'^"^ 






1.0% m 


/ / X w 






OTHER ^\ y 
LATIN AMERICA -^"^ >lir 

7.1% ^^r 


/ J^ 






5^3 


MORE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES 




I / w 


Wjk LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES' 




AFRICA / 


^'^^^^r 






10.0% 


^^^^^^^ \ OTHER ASIA 
18.0% 

3.996 BILLION 




•OTHER OCEANIA 0.1% 









SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



WORLD POPULATION 



Latin America Posts 
Highest Growth Rate 
for Any Continent 

The average population growth 
rate in the less developed 
regions increased from 1.7 
percent in 1 950 to 2.2 per- 
cent in 1975. This is due 
to the fact that death 
rates have fallen faster than 
birth lates. 



In the more developed 
countries, however, a sub- 
stantial decline occurred in 
the average annual growth 
rate.from 1.3 percent in 1950 
to 0.8 percent in 1975, thus 
largely offsetting the in- 
crease in the growth rate of 
the less developed countries. 

Latin America has had the 
highest annual growth rate of 
any continent during the 



period since 1950, rising 
to 2.8 percent in 1975. 
More than half of the 
world's population lived in 
Asia in 1950, and by 1975 
this proportion increased 
to 57 percent. Although the 
2 percent growth rate in 
Asia is moderate for a less 
developed region, given the 
large population base 
to which it applies it yields 



an absolute increase of 
nearly 46 million persons 
annually, or almost two- 
thirds (64 percent) of the 
world's population increase. 



BILLIONS OF PERSONS 



World Population, by Continent: 
1950-1975 



WORLD POPULATION 



1950 



1975 



World Population, Total 
Asia 

Europe, including USSR 
Africa 

Latin America 
Northern America 
Oceania 



Billions of Persons 




1.409 


2.288 


.572 


.728 


.219 


.399 


.164 


.323 


.166 


.237 


.012 


.021 




1950 



1955 



1960 



1965 



1970 



1975 



PERCENT 



PERCENT 




1950 1955 1960 
SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



1965 



1970 1975 




1950 1955 



1960 



1965 



1970 1975 



POPULATION & COMPONENTS OF CHANGE 



U.S. Total Population 
Reaches 215.1 Million 
on July 1, Up 0.7% 

The total population of the 
United States (including 
Armed Forces overseas) was 
about 21 5,1 18,000 on July 1, 
1976. This represents an 
increase of 1,578,000, or 
0.7 percent, over the esti- 
nnate for last July, and an 
increase of 130,000 over 



June of this year. The 
monthly gain was the result 
of a natural increase of 
102,000 (excess of births 
over deaths), and estimated 
net civilian immigration 
of 28,000. 

The total population 
doubled between 1900 and 
1950 and has increased by 
40 percent since 1950. 
While the population has 
been continually growing. 



the annual amount of in- 
crease has been declining— 
from a high for the century 
of 3 million per year 
during fiscal year 1957 
to about 1.6 million annually 
during the last 3 years. 



MILLIONS OF PERSONS 




Population of the United States, 
Including Armed Forces Overseas 
July 1, 1900 - July 1, 1976 



1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 

NOTE: Figures for years prior to 1940 exclude Alaska and Hawaii and Armed Forces overseas. 



1950 



1960 



1970 



1980 



THOUSANDS 




0-L-^ 



1970 1971 

SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



HOUSEHOLDS & FAMILIES 



"Nonfamily" Households 
Grow From 15% to 23% 
Between 1960 and 1976 

Among the most dramatic 
changes observed during 
recent years in household 
and family characteristics 
has been the growth in the 
proportion of "nonfamily" 
households, which increased 
15 percent to 23 percent 



of all households between 
1960 and 1976. 

The increase is attribu- 
table to several factors, 
including the growing num- 
ber of young adults who 
leave their parental homes 
and establish nonfamily 
households and the increas- 
ing number of older persons 
continuing to maintain 
homes apart from any 
relatives. 



High Divorce Rates 
Increase Numbers of 
Women-Lead Households 

Recent high rates of 
divorce have resulted in 
an increase in the propor- 
tion of families headed by 
women with no husband pres- 
ent and in a simultaneous 
decrease in the proportion 
of families with both hus- 
band and wife present. 



Between 1970 and 1976 
the proportion of families 
headed by women increased 
for both whites and blacks: 
from 9 to 1 1 percent among 
white families, and from 
28 to 36 percent among 
black families. 



PERCENT 



uu - 




^ 15.0 




18.8 




23.1 


NONFAMILY 


90 J 














HOUSEHOLDS. 




85.0 


80^ 


81.2 














76.9 




70- 


- 


m^ 








- 


60- 


- 


^^ 








- 


50- 


- 


H 








FAMILY 
HOUSEHOLDS 


40- 


- 










- 


30- 


- 


<^^^l 








- 


20- 


- 


fl 








- 


10- 
n _ 


- 












- 



Family and Nonfamily Households as a Percent 
of All Households: 1960, 1970, and 1976 



I960 



1970 



1976 



nn — 


PERCENT 




























10.8 




13.3 




9.0 




10.8 




28.3 




35.9 


FEMALE 
HEAD 


90 - 


- 




2.4 




•s, 

2.6 




^2.3 




~^2.4 












88.7 






86.8 




86.8 


80- 


84.1 


70- 


- 




















^3.7 




OTHER 
MALE HEAD 

y 

\ 

4.1 




68.0 


60- 


y 


60.0 


50- 


- 
























- 


40- 


- 
























HUSBAND- " 
WIFE 


30- 


- 
























- 


20- 


- 
























- 


10- 
n J 


- 
























- 



Type of Family as a Percent of 
All Families, by Race: 1970 
and 1976 



1970 1976 

TOTAL 



1970 1976 

WHITE 



1970 1976 

BLACK 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



8 HOUSEHOLDS & FAMILIES 



Ratio of Children 
Living With Parents 
Declines to 80% 

One of the results of the 
proportional decline in 
husband-wife families has 
been the concurrent decline 
in the proportion of 
children who live with 
both parents. Between 
1970 and 1976 the propor- 
tion of all children under 



18 living with both parents 
declined from 85 to 80 per- 
cent. While the proportion 
of both black and white 
children living with both 
parents has declined, the 
difference between the 
races remains considerable: 
85 percent of white children 
living with both parents in 
1976 compared with about 
half of black children. 



Birth Rate Drop Reduces 
Ratio of Under- 18's 
to 1.15 per Family 

Changes in the component 
types of households and 
families and recent 
declines in the birth rate 
have combined to effect a 
reduction in the estimated 
average number of persons 
per household and per 
family. The impact of the 



declining birth rate is 
seen in the decrease in the 
average number of persons 
under age 18 per household 
and per family-0.89 and 
1.15 persons, respectively 
in 1976. 



I 





PERCENT 




































qn - 


- 


84.9 


80.0 




89.2 






^ 








85.2 




80 - 








70 - 


- 
















- 


60 - 


- 




1 










58.1 


49.6 


- 


50 - 












1 
















40 - 


- 


















- 


30 - 


- 




\ 














- 


20 - 


- 


















- 


10 - 
n - 


- 


k 


1 














- 



Persons Under 18 Years 
Living With Both Parents, 
by Race: 1970 and 1976 



1970 1976 

TOTAL 



1970 1976 

WHITE 



1970 1976 

BLACK 



PERSONS 



PERSONS 



3- 



2- 



Households 



ALL AGES 



18 YEARS AND OVER 



UNDER 18 YEARS 



1- 



Families 

ALL AGES 



18 YEARS AND OVER 



UNDER 18 YEARS 



1960 



1970 



1976 



1960 



1970 



1976 



Average Size of Households 

and Families: 

1960, 1970, and 1976 



HOUSEHOLDS & FAMILIES 



1960 1970 1976 



HOUSEHOLDS 
All Ages 

18 Years and Over 
Under 18 Years 

FAMILIES 
All Ages 

18 Years and Over 
Under 18 Years 



Persons Per Unit 


3.33 


3.14 


2.89 


2.12 


2.05 


2.00 


1.21 


1.09 


0.89 


3.67 


3.58 


3.39 


2.26 


2.25 


2.23 


1.41 


1.34 


1.15 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



PERSONAL INCOME 



July Personal Income 
Makes Largest Monthly 
Gain Since August '74 

Total personal income rose 
$13.9 billion in July to a 
seasonally-adjusted annual 
rate of $1,384.3 billion. 
This was the largest gain 
since August 1974, when 
personal income rose at a 
$15.5-billion annual pace. 



The big factors behind 
the July income spurt were 
a cost-of-living increase in 
Social Security benefits and 
a large rise in wages and 
salaries. Following 3 months 
of declines, transfer pay- 
ments rose at a $5.7-billion 
pace, led by a $4.6-billion 
advance in Social Security 
payments. Wages and salaries 
increased at an $8.1-billion 
annual rate. In June they 



had fallen at a $100-million 
rate. 

Payrolls in commodity- 
producing industries in- 
creased $2 billion in 
July: June payrolls were 
near the May level. Dis- 
tributive industry payrolls 
increased $2.8 billion in 
July, following a $1.5-bil- 
lion decline in June. Pay- 
rolls in service industries 



rose $2.4 billion, while 
government and government 
enterprise payrolls were up 
$0.9 billion. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



1,400 



1,200 



1,000 



800 



600 



400 



200 




400 



300 



200 



100 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



Total Wage and Salary Disbursements 



COMMODITY-PRODUCING 

INDUSTRIESX 






JULY 


JUNE 


JULY 


PERSONAL INCOME 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Billions of Dollars 




TOTAL 


1,252.0 


1,370.4 


1,384.3 


Wage and Salary Disbursements 


802.9 


883.1 


891.3 


Commodity-Producing Industries 


272.5 


303.4 


305.4 


Distributive Industries 


194.4 


212.4 


215.2 


Service Industries 


160.0 


177.7 


180.1 


Government 


176.0 


189.6 


190.5 


Transfer Payments 


177.3 


186.8 


192.5 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



10 FEDERAL INDIVIDUAL INCOME TAX RETURNS 



Over $15,000 Incomes 
Grow Nearly Sixfold 
Between '65 and '74 

From 1965 to 1974, the number 
of Federal individual income 
tax returns reporting an 
adjusted gross income (AG I) 
of $1 5,000 or over jumped 
from 3.4 million to 20.3 
million, nearly a sixfold 
increase, fn addition, in- 
dividual returns with AGI's 



between $10,000 and $15,000 
nearly doubled. 

During the same 10-year 
period, individual tax re- 
turns with an AGI of $5,000 
or less dropped from 33 
million to 26.8 million, 
a decline of 6.2 million; 
while returns reporting AGI's 
from $5,000 to $10,000 de- 
clined nearly 2.9 million 
to 20.6 million. 



Nearly 84 percent, or 
$755.8 billion, of total 1974 
AGI was in the form of wages 
and salaries. The remaining 
16 percent was distributed 
among business and farm 
profits ($44.6 billion), 
interest ($40.4 billion), 
dividends ($21.5 billion), 
gain from sales of capital 
assets ($13.2 billion), part- 
nership profit ($1 1.5 billion), 
and other income less statu- 



tory adjustments ($19.1 
billion), which includes 
small business corporation 
profits, rents, royalties, 
and income from estates and 
trusts. 

During the last 10 years, 
the proportion of wages and 
salaries in total AGI has 
remained relatively stable, 
fluctuating between 80 and 
84 percent. 



MILLIONS OF RETURNS 



100 



Returns Filed, by Size of Adjusted Gross Income: 1965-1974 



60 



RETURNS $15,000 OR MORE 



RETURNS $10,000 UNDER $15,000 



40- 



RETURNS $5,000 UNDER $10,000 



20 



t 



RETURNS UNDER $5,000 



1965 



1966 



1967 



1968 



1969 



1970 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



Components of Adjusted Gross Income: 1974 

TOTAL: S906.1 BILLION 




SALARIES AND 
WAGES 83.4% 

BUSINESS AND FARM 
PROFIT 4.9% 

INTEREST 4.5% 

DIVIDENDS 2.4% 

OTHER INCOME LESS 
ADJUSTMENTS 2.1% 

SALES OF CAPITAL 
ASSETS 1.5% 

PARTNERSHIP 
PROFIT 1.3% 



RETURNS FILED, BY SIZE OF 
ADJUSTED GROSS INCOME 



1965 



1973 



1974 







Mill 


ons of Tax 


Retu 


rns 


All Returns, Total 


67.596 




80.693 




83.343 


Under S5,000 


33.017 




27.038 




26.825 


S5,000 under $10,000 


23.474 




20.582 




20.560 


310,000 under 315,000 


7.715 




15.804 




15.645 


SI 5,000 or more 


3.391 




17.269 




20.314 



NOTE: All figures are estimated based on samples. 



SOURCE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE 



FEDERAL INDIVIDUAL INCOME TAX RETURNS 



11 



Federal Individual 
Income Tax Averages 
$1,839 During 1974 

The average Federal individual 
income tax lias risen from 
$481 for 1950 to $1,839 for 
1974, an increase of nearly 
four times. During tiie same 
period, however, income tax 



as a percent of adjusted 
gross income has only risen 
from 1 1 .6 percent to 14. 1 
percent. 



Nontaxable Returns 
With AGI Under 
$5,000 Up 20.6% 

Reflecting in part changes 
in the tax laws, the propor- 
tion of individuals with ad- 
justed gross incomes (AGI) 
under $5,000 who reported no 
Federal income tax has risen 
from 35.8 percent for 1960 
to 56.4 percent for 1974. 
Also, between 1970 and 1974, 



nontaxable income tax returns 
reporting an AGI between 
$5,000 and $10,000 rose from 
1 .9 percent to 4.0 percent of 
the total number of returns 
in this income category. 
Increases in the proportion 
of nontaxable returns record- 
ed in higher income cate- 
gories rose no higher than 
1 percent. 



DOLLARS 



2,000 



1,800 



1,600 



1,400 



1,200 



1,000 



800 



600 



400 



200 



Average Fe< 


Jeral individua 


1 Income Tax: 


1950-1974 


/ 










/ 








/ 


/ 








/ 










/ 























































1950 



1955 



1960 



1965 



1970 



PERCENT 



20 



15 



10 



I I I 

Average Federal Individual Income Tax as a Percent 
of Adjusted Gross Income: 1950-1974 



1950 1955 1960 
SOURCE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE 



1965 



1970 



1975 



1975 



Percentage of All Nontaxable Returns, by Size of Adjusted 
Gross Income; 1960, 1964, 1970, and 1974 





1 1 1 


1 






1 1 


I960 




35,8 


1 iM r\tz D d*c r\rtr\ 


1964 




41.4 


1970 




5^.: 


> 


1974 


/;■ 


56.4 




1 \ 1 1 h 




— 1 \ 



10 



20 



30 



1960 
1964 
1970 
1974 



1.32 



1.90 
1.92 





1960 
1964 
1970 
1974 



0.65 

0.97 
0.51 
0.52 



40 

PERCENT 



50 



60 



$5,000 UNDER $10,000 



3.99 



$10,000 UNDER $50,000 



$50,000 UNDER $100,000 



$100,000 OR MORE 



4 5 6 

PERCENT 



70 



80 



9 10 



12 PUBLIC INCOME-MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS 



Cash Payments 
Increase 372 Times 
Between 1966 and 1975 

Total cash payments under 
public income-maintenance 
programs reached SI 43.6 bil- 
lion in 1975, more than Wh 
times the amount paid in 1966. 
The largest increase occurred 
during 1975 when total pay- 
ments, boosted by a sharp 
rise in unemployment insurance 



benefits, climbed S30.8 
billion, or 27.3 percent. Pay- 
ments under public programs 
accounted for about 13.1 
percent of total personal 
income in 1975, nearly twice 
the 1966 share of 7.2 
percent. 

OASDHI payments, which 
account for nearly half of 
total payments, rose from 
$19.8 billion in 1966 to 
$66.6 billion in 1975. 



Payments to railroad and 
public-employment retirees 
rose from $6.5 billion in 1966 
to $25.3 billion in 1975. 

Payments to veterans and 
their survivors rose from 
$4.4 billion to $11.7 billion 
in 1975. Almost two-thirds 
of the increase since 1966 
occurred during 1975 when 
payments were upped $4.7 
billion. 



Benefits paid under unem- 
ployment insurance programs, 
temporary disability pro- 
grams, and workmen's compen- 
sation programs nearly doubled 
in 1975— increasing from 
$11.9 billion in 1974 to 
$22.9 billion in 1975. 

Public assistance payments 
rose to $10.4 billion, an 
increase of 17.4 percent 
since 1974. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




1966 1967 1968 1969 

SOURCE SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 



1970 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



PUBLIC INCOME-IVIAINTENANCE 
PROGRAMS 



Billions 


ot Dollars 


Total Cash Payments' 




1966 


39.3 


1974 


112.8 


1975 


143.6 


OASDHI'* 




1966 


19.8 


1974 


58.2 


1975 


66.6 


Railroad and Public Employee 




Retirement 




1966 


6.5 


1974 


20.7 


1975 


25.3 


Veterans' Pension and 




Compensation 




1966 


4.4 


1974 


7.1 


1975 


11.7 


Unemployment Benefits, 




Temporary Disability Benefits 




and Workmen's Compensation 


Total 


1966 


3.8 


1974 


11.9 


1975 


22.9 


Public Assistance Payments 




1966 


4.3 


1974 


8.9 


1975 


10.4 


Supplemental Security Income to 


the Aged, Blind, and Disabled 




1966 


NA 


1974 


5.2 


1975 


5.9 


NA Not available. 




'Includes lump-sum death payments. 


"Cash payments under the Old-Age, 


Survivors, Disability, and 




Health Insurance Program. 





SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY 
INCOME PAYMENTS 



PUBLIC INSURANCE PROGRAMS COVERAGE 



OLD AGE, SURVIVORS /DISABILITY INSURANCE 13 



Public Retirement 
Plans Cover 96.1% 

In 1973, 96.1 percent of 
total paid civilian employment 
was covered by some type of 
public retirement program— 
89.8 percent by Old-Age, 
Survivors, Disability, and 
Health Insurance (OASDHI) 
and railroad retirement. 

Eighty-eight percent of 
all civilian wage and salary 



workers were covered under 
State, railroad, and Federal 
unemployment insurance pro- 
grams; 86.6 percent were 
insured by workmen's compen- 
sation provisions; and 20.7 
percent of all wage and sal- 
ary workers, except those 
government employees covered 
by sick-leave provisions, 
were protected by State and 
railroad temporary disability 
insurance. 



32.4 Million Receive 
$5.8 Billion in OASI & Dl 
Benefits 

The amount of OASI cash bene- 
fits paid to retired workers, 
their dependents, or survivors 
rose $8.8 million during May 
1976 to $5.1 billion. Pay- 
ments have increased $588.7 
million since May 1975. The 
number of OASI benefits rose 
22,000 in May to 27.9 



million. This represents 
a gain of 684,000 since 
a year ago. 

Cash payments from the 
Dl trust fund to disabled 
workers and their dependents 
rose $5.6 million in May and 
were up $124.4 million from 
May 1975. The number of 
benefits paid to Dl recip- 
ients rose 22,000 during 
the month and 424,000 over 
the year. 



Paid Civilian Employment Covered by 
Public Insurance Programs: December 1973 



TOTAL PUBLIC 
RETIREMENT 



96.1 



OASDHI AND 

RAILROAD 

RETIREMENT 



89.8 



UNEMPLOYMENT 
INSURANCE 



WORKMEN'S 
COMPENSATION 




88.0 



86.6 



TEMPORARY 

DISABILITY 

INSURANCE 



20.7 



20 



40 60 

PERCENT 



80 



6,000 

5,000- 

4,000 

3,000 

2,000 

1,000 



ILLIONSOF DOLLARS 



100 



OASI & Dl I 

Amounts of Cash Benefits in- 
Current Payment Status 



RETIRED WORKERS AND 
DEPENDENTS OR SURVIVORS. 



DISABLED WORKERS AND 
DEPENDENTS ' 




1971 1972 1973 

MILLIONSOF BENEFITS 



1974 



1975 



1976 




20 



10- 
5- 
0- 



OASI & Dl 



RETIRED WORKERS AND 
DEPENDENTS OR SURVIVORS 



Number of Cash Benefits in 
1 5 -j — Current Payment Status — 



DISABLED WORKERS AND 
DEPENDENTS 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



OASI &DI 



MAY 
1975 



APRIL 
1976 



MAY 
1976 



Millions of Dollars 



AMOUNT OF CASH BENEFITS 

IN CURRENT PAYMENT STATUS* 
Retired Worl<ers and Dependents 

or Survivors 
Disabled Workers and Dependents 



4,520.7 5,100.3 5,109.1 

588.6 707.4 713.0 

Millions of Benefits 



NUMBER OF CASH BENEFITS 
IN CURRENT PAYMENT STATUS* 

Retired Workers and Dependents 
or Survivors 

Disabled Workers and Dependents 



27.2 

4.1 



27.9 
4.5 



27.9 
4.5 



*Payable in the first week of the following month. 



SOURCE SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 



CHILDREN 



WIDOWED 
MOTHERS 

AGED 
SURVIVORS 

WIVES AND 
HUSBANDS 

DISABLED 
WORKERS 



WOMEN 



/lEN 



4.7 



0.6 



3.7 



3.2 



2.0 



RETIRED WORKERS 



Persons Receiving 
Cash Benefits Under 
OASDHI, by Type: 
End of 1973 



7.1 



8.7 



4 6 

MILLIONSOF PERSONS 



10 



14 AID TO FAMILIES WITH DEPENDENT CHILDREN 



UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE-STATE LAWS 



AFDC Payments Rise 
8.6% in March to 
$883 Million Total 

Total payments under the Aid 
to Families With Dependent 
Children (AFDC) program, 
which account for the major 
portion of cash payments 
under public assistance pro- 
grams, jumped $69.8 million 
(8.6 percent) in March to 
S883 million. Payments to 



recipients in the unemployed- 
father segment rose $2 mil- 
lion (4.1 percent) to $50.7 
million. 

The total number of 
recipients rose 32,000 to 
11,486,000 in March. Almost 
60 percent of this rise was 
attributed to the 19,000 
(2.9 percent) increase in 
recipients in the unemployed- 
father segment. 



April State Unemployment 
Benefits 28% Below 
March 1975 

Unemployment insurance bene- 
fits paid under State laws 
fell $146.5 million (13.5 
percent) in April to $934.2 
million. This is a decrease 
of about 28 percent since 
March 1975 when a record 
$1 .3 billion in benefits 
were paid. 



The average weekly num- 
ber of recipients of State 
unemployment benefits de- 
clined for the third consec- 
utive month in April— down 
301,900 to 2,865,700. This 
represents a drop of 38 per- 
cent since the March 1975 
peak of 4,586,400. 



1,000 



MILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



800 



600 



400 



200 



AFDC 

Total Money Payments 



Q i I ■ I I 1 ■ I I I 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

MILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



100 



AFDC 

Money Payments— Unemployed-Father Segment 




Q i « 1 1 ^ 1 i 1 1 1 I I I I I 1 t I I 1 I I I I I 1 1 I 1 I 1 1 I I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 1 I 1 I I I t t I I I I I I I I I 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



12,000 
10.000 
8.000 
6,000 
4.000 
2,000 



1,000 



THOUSANDS OF RECIPIENTS 











' ' 










AFDC 
Total R 












ecipjents 















































1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

THOUSANDS OF RECIPIENTS 



500 




AFDC 

Recipients — Unemployed-Father Segment 



» t ■■«■.»».■ I ■. » 



■■''■■'''■ 



. 1 . ■ . 1 ■ I I 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 ■ 1 1 1 ■ 1 . 1 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 



,600 



1,400 



1,200 



1,000 



800 



600 



400 



200 



MILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



Unemployment Insurance— State Laws, 






Total Benefits Paic 






A 












r\ 


M 










\i 


r\ 


A 


A 




KV 1 


V 




^ 


\\ 


h 


(\J 






V 


\j 


V 


I 



















6.000 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



THOUSANDS OF RECIPIENTS 



4,000 



2,000 



Unemployment Insurance — State Laws, Recipients 
(Weekly Average) 




1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



AID TO FAMILIES WITH 
DEPENDENT CHILDREN 




MARCH 
1975 


FEB. 
1976 


MARCH 
1976 








Millions of D 


hilars 


Money Payments, TOTAL 
Money Payments-Unemployed- 
Father Segment 


750.1 
36.3 


813.2 
48.7 


883.0 
50.7 








Thousands of Recipients 


Recipients, TOTAL 
Recipients-Unemployed- 
Father Segment 




11,376 
533 


11,454 
657 


11,486 
676 


UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE- 
STATE LAWS 


APRIL 
1975 


MARCH 
1976 


APRIL 
1976 



Total Benefits Paid 
Recipients (Weekly Average) 



Millions of Dollars 
1,281.2 1,080.7 934.2 

Thousands of Recipients 
4,328.0 3,167.6 2,865.7 



SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME 



SSI Payments Rise 
$5.3 Million in June 
to $489.6 Million 

Total federally-administered 
Supplemental Security Income 
(SSI) payments to the aged, 
blind, and disabled rose to 
$489.6 million in June 1976. 
This is an increase of about 
$5.3 million since May and 
$32.5 million since June 1975. 
The Federal portion, which 



accounts for about three- 
fourths of total federally- 
administered payments, in- 
creased $4.7 million in June 
and is up $28.6 million since 
a year earlier. 

SSI payments to the per- 
manently and totally dis- 
abled increased $5.8 million 
in June to $276.9 million. 
Payments to the aged declined 
$635 thousand to $201.5 
million; and payments to the 



blind rose from $1 1 million 
to $11.2 million. 

The number of aged persons 
receiving SSI payments con- 
tinued its downward trend 
in June— about 19,000 fewer 
persons to 2,244,200. The 
number of disabled persons 
receiving SSI payments de- 
clined about 2,000 to 
1,987,600. About 76,300 



15 

persons received SSI pay- 
ments to the blind in June, 
little changed from May. 



MILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




3,0C0 



2,500 



2,000 



1,500 



1,000 



500 



THOUSANDS OF PERSONS 




1974 



1975 



1976 



1974 



1975 



1976 



1ILLI0NS0F DOLLARS 




Supplemental Security Income 
Payments 



' ■ ■ 



L L LLLLLI 



SSI TO THE AGED 



SSI TO THE BLIND 



.■X..L L L L L, L. I, t 1 L 



1974 1975 

SOURCE SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 



1976 



SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME 


JUNE 
1975 


MAY 
1976 


JUNE 
1976 








Millions of Dollars 




PAYMENTS 
Total Federally-Admin 
SSI Payments 
Federal SSI Payments 


istered 


457.1 
342.9 


484.3 
366.8 


489.6 
371.5 


SSI to the Disabled 
SSI to the Aged 
SSI to the Blind 




244.0 

202.9 

10.2 


271.1 
202.2 

11.0 


276.9 

201.5 

11.2 








Thousands of Persons 


RECIPIENTS 
Aged 
Disabled 
Blind 




2,326.3 

1,788.3 

73.8 


2,263.3 

1,989.8 

76.2 


2,244.2 

1,987.6 

76.3 



16 HOUSEHOLDS PURCHASING FOOD STAMPS 



Food Stamp Households 
Headed by Unemployed Up 

In July 1975, 59 percent of 
the households purchasing 
food stamps were headed by 
persons who were not in the 
labor force. However, this 
proportion had declined about 
7 percentage points over the 
2 years since May 1973. 



Rising unemployment rates 
in late 1974 and continued 
high levels of unemployment 
in 1975 resulted in an in- 
crease in the proportion of 
food stamp households headed 
by the unemployed. 

Fifty-eight percent of all 
food stamp households were 
headed by women in July 1975, 
about half of whom were 
widowed or divorced. 



The proportion of house- 
holds purchasing food stamps 
headed by the elderly (65 
years old or over) declined 
from 24 percent in May 1973 
to 17 percent in July 1975, 
while the proportion headed 
by younger people (under age 
35) rose from 30 to 39 per- 
cent during the same period. 

According to an April 
1975 survey, about 40 percent 



of all families with incomes 
below the poverty level in 
1974 ($5,038 for a nonfarm 
family of four persons) par- 
ticipated in the food stamp 
program in one or more 
months of 1974. 



100 



PERCENT DISTRIBUTION 



90-- ' 27.1 



80-- 



70-- 



60-- 
50-- 
40-- 
30-- 
20-- 
10-- 



7.0 



66.0 



9.2 



29.0 



61.8 




MAY 
1973 



NOVEMBER 
1974 



12.5 



28.8 



UNEMPLOYED 



EMPLOYED 



58.6a NOT IN LABOR 
fl FORCE 

^^1 Food Stamp 
4 Households, by 
Labor Force 
Status of Head : 
Selected 
Periods 



JULY 
1975 



80-- 
70-- 
60-- 
50-- 



40-- 



30-- 



20 -- 



10-- 



PERCENT DISTRIBUTION 



90-- 



15.6 



30.5 




19.1 



11.6 



34.8 



17.2 



65 YEARS OLD 
AND OVER 



11.7 m 55 TO 64 YEARS - 



32.7V 35 TO 54 YEARS 



38.8 H UNDER 35YEARS 

Food Stamp 
Households, by 
Age of Head : 
Selected 
Periods 



PERCENT 



Food Stamp Households, by Marital Status of Head: 
July 1975 

MARRIED, 

WIFE 

PRESENT 

35.3% 




NEVER MARRIED 
10.6% 



70 



60-- 



50-- 



40-- 



30-- 



20-- 



10-- 



Percent of Low-Income Families Participating in Food 64.7 
Stamp Prc^ram, by Sex and Race of Head : 1974 

57.2 58.0 



40.4 




41.5 



26.2 



22.8 





ALL WHITE 
TOTAL 



LACK ALL WHITE BLACK ALL WHITE BLACK 
MALE HEAD FEMALE HEAD 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



INTERNATIONAL UNEMPLOYMENT 



17 



Industrialized Nations' 
Jobless Rates Decline 
Except in France, U.K. 

Although its seasonally ad- 
justed unemployment rate of 
7.6 percent remained the 
highest among the major in- 
dustrialized nations, the 
United States showed the 
largest decline in unemploy- 
ment from the fourth quarter 



of 1975 to the first quarter 
of 1976. 

Despite the decline in 
Japanese unemployment in the 
first quarter of 1976 to 2 
percent, the overall trend 
since the fourth quarter of 
1974 has been upward. 

Germany's unemployment 
rate registered the second 
successive quarterly decline 
from the 5-year high of 4.4 
percent reached in the third 



quarter of 1975. Canadian 
unemployment declined slight- 
ly, falling to 6.8 percent 
in the first quarter of 1976. 

France and the United 
Kingdom continued to experi- 
ence rising unemployment in 
the first quarter of 1976, 
although at decreased rates 
of increase. However, un- 
employment in France has 
risen seven consecutive 
quarters, while in the United 



Kingdom unemployment 
has risen nine successive 
quarters— from a 2.5 
percent rate in the fourth 
quarter of 1973 to 6.2 
percent in the first quarter 
of 1976. 



PERCENT 



Unemployment Rates in Selected Industrial Nations 
(Adjusted to United States Concepts) 




1971 1972 

SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



UNEMPLOYMENT RATES 



INTERNATIONAL 




COMPARISONS 


Percent 


UNITED STATES 




1st Quarter 1975 


8.1 


4th Quarter 1975 


8.5 


1st Quarter 1976 


7.6 


CANADA 




1st Quarter 1975 


6.7 


4th Quarter 1975 


7.0 


1st Quarter 1976 


6.8 


UNITED KINGDOM 




1st Quarter 1975 


3.7 


4th Quarter 1975 


6.0 


1st Quarter 1976 


6.2 


FRANCE 




1st Quarter 1975 


3.9 


4th Quarter 1975 


4.7 


1st Quarter 1976 


4.8 


JAPAN 




1st Quarter 1975 


1.7 


4th Quarter 1975 


2.2 


1st Quarter 1976 


2.0 


GERMANY 




1st Quarter 1975 


3.2 


4th Quarter 1975 


4.3 


1st Quarter 1976 


4.0 



EMPLOYMENT & UNEMPLOYMENT 



Number of Jobless 
Rises in July; Adult 
Women Affected Most 

A sharp expansion of 
690,000 in the civilian 
labor force in July to a 
record 95.3 rriillion out- 
paced a rise of 407,000 in 
total civilian employment 
to 87.9 million. This 
meant an increase of 283,000 
in unemployed workers and 



brought the total unemployed 
to 7.4 million in July. 
This was the second straight 
month in which the number 
of unemployed rose by 
283,000. 

Adult women were hit 
the hardest, with 180,000 
losing their jobs. Unem- 
ployed adult men increased 
by only 96,000. 



Unemployment Rate 
Rises from 7.5% to 
7.8% During July 

The unemployment rate for 
all workers rose for the 
second consecutive month, 
moving from 7.5 percent in 
June to 7.8 percent in July. 
However, joblessness among 
full-time workers edged 
downward from a rate of 7.4 
percent to 7.3 percent. 



Unemployment among 
household heads increased 
in July, with almost all of 
the rise occurring among 
female heads of house- 
holds. 



100 



MILLIONS OF PERSONS 



UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (PERCENT) 




60 



50 



40 



Civilian Labor Force and Employment 




ADULT FEMALE 
EMPLOYMENT 



ADULT MALE 
EMPLOYMENT 



« 



1971 \-jiz IS /J 

SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



1974 



1975 



1976 




1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 





JULY 


JUNE 


JULY 


EMPLOYMENT & UNEMPLOYMENT 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Millions of Persons 




Civilian Labor Force 


93.1 


94.6 


95.3 


Civilian Employment 


85.0 


87.5 


87.9 


Adult Males 


47.5 


48.4 


48.5 


Adult Females 


30.5 


31.8 


32.0 


Teenagers (ages 16-19) 


7.0 


7.3 


7.4 


UNEMPLOYMENT RATES 




Percent 




All Workers, Total 


8.7 


7.5 


7.8 


Full Time Workers 


8.5 


7.4 


7.3 


Household Heads 


6.1 


5.1 


5.4 


White, Total 


8.1 


6.8 


7.1 


Adult Males 


6.7 


5.4 


5.7 


Adult Females 


7.5 


6.5 


65 


Teenagers 


18.6 


16.1 


16.3 


Black and Other, Total 


13.4 


13.3 


12.9 


Adult Males 


11.6 


10.7 


10.3 


Adult Females 


11.0 


11.3 


11.7 


Teenagers 


35.3 


40.3 


34.1 



EMPLOYMENT & UNEMPLOYMENT 



19 



Unemployment Rates 
for Black Teenagers, 
Adult Males Decline 

The overall increase in the 
jobless rate for adult 
females from 7.1 percent 
in June to 7.6 percent in 
July was reflected in 
higher unemployment rates 
for both white and black 
adult women. The white 
adult female rate climbed 



from 6.5 percent to 6.9 
percent, while joblessness 
among black and other adult 
females rose from 1 1.3 
percent to 11.7 percent. 

A decline in black adult 
male unemployment from 10.7 
percent to 10.3 percent 
coupled with an offsetting 
rise from 5.4 percent to 
5.7 percent in the white 
adult male jobless rate 
resulted in a small overall 



increase in adult male 
unemployment from 6 percent 
to 6.1 percent. 

The unemployment rate 
of black and other nonwhite 
teenagers dropped from last 
month's 5-year high of 40.3 
percent to 34.1 percent. 
White teenager unemployment 
edged up from 16.1 percent 
to 16.3 percent. 



UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (PERCENT) 




TEENAGERS, BLACK AND 
OTHER RACES 



TEENAGERS, WHITE 



ADULT FEMALES, BLACK 
AND OTHER RACES 

ADULT MALES, BLACK 
AND OTHER RACES 



ADULT FEMALES, WHITE 
ADULT MALES, WHITE 



1971 1972 

SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



20 EMPLOYMENT & UNEMPLOYMENT 



White-Collar Jobless 
Rate Up 0.4% in July; 
Blue-Collar Up 0.3% 

The overall white-collar 
unemployment rate climbed 
from 4.4 percent to 4.8 
percent in July, identical 
to the level of a year ago. 
Increases in joblessness 
among clerical workers and 
managers and administrators 
(except farm) were the 



primary contributors to the 
rise in white-collar unem- 
ployment. 

The unemployment rate 
among blue-collar workers 
rose from 9.3 percent to 9.6 
percent in July. The in- 
crease was concentrated 
among operatives whose job- 
less rate of 10.1 percent 
was the highest since 
January. 



Jobless Rates Increase 
for Government and 
Construction Workers 

The increase from 4.2 per- 
cent to 4.5 percent in 
unemployment among govern- 
ment workers was the largest 
percentage increase among 
major industry groups in 
July. The rate in construc- 
tion increased to 17.7 per- 
cent; and the 8.5 percent 



jobless rate in wholesale 
and retail trade was the 
highest level since March. 

The increased unemploy- 
ment rate in manufacturing 
resulted from a sharp rise 
in joblessness from 7.7 
percent to 8.4 percent in 
the nondurable sector that 
was partially offset by a 
decline from 7.5 percent 
to 7.3 percent in the rate 
for the durable sector. 



25 



UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (PERCENT) 



20 -- 



Unemployment Rates, by Occupation 





JULY 


JUNE 


JULY 


UNEMPLOYMENT RATES 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Percent 




BY OCCUPATION 








White-Collar Workers 


4.8 


4.4 


4,8 


Clerical Workers 


6.8 


6,1 


6.7 


Managers and Administrators, 








Except Farm 


3.0 


3.1 


3.5 


Blue-Collar Workers 


12.3 


9.3 


9.6 


Operatives 


13.4 


9.8 


10.1 




MANAGERS AND ADMINISTRATORS., 
I I EXCEPT FARM 



25 



UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (PERCENT) 



20 -■ 



Unemployment Rates, by Industry 



JULY JUNE JULY 
UNEMPLOYM ENT RATE S 1975 1976 1976 







Percent 




BY INDUSTRY 








Construction 


20.4 


17.0 


17.7 


Wholesale and Retail Trade 


8,4 


8.2 


8,5 


Manufacturing 


11.5 


7,6 


7.8 


Government Workers 


4.1 


4,2 


4.5 




-^ 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 
SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT & HELP-WANTED INDEX 



21 



Long-Term Jobless 
Decline; Those Out of 
Work Under 5 Weeks Up 

The number of workers 
unemployed less than 5 
weeks rose by 333,000 
(12.7 percent) in July. Also, 
despite an overall increase 
of 102,000 workers out of 
work 15 weeks or more, the 
number of very long-term 
unemployed (out of work 



27 weeks or more) declined 
by 100,000. Asa result 
the average unemployed 
worker in July had been 
jobless for 1 5.8 weeks, 
down 1.1 weeks from June. 
The number of workers 
unemployed 5 to 14 weeks 
declined 233,000 (10.3 
percent), the first drop 
in this category since 
April. 



Newspaper Classified 
Help-Wanted 
Advertising Increases 

The Index of Help-Wanted 
Advertising, which measures 
the volume of help-wanted 
classified advertising in 
51 major U.S. newspapers, 
rose to 96 in June, an 
increase of 2 points over 
May's upward revised level 
of 94. This upward move- 



ment occurred despite an 
increase from 7.3 percent 
to 7.5 percent in the 
unemployment rate from 
May to June 



!i 3,500 



3,000 



2,500 



2,000 



1,500 



1,000 



500 



THOUSANDS OF WORKERS 



INDEX 




Q ■'»'■■■■■■'' I I ■ I I I I I 1 I I 1 I I I 1 I I 1 I I I 1 I I i I 1 I 1 II 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



130 

125 

120 

115 

110 

105 

100 

95 

90 

85 

80 

75 

70 



Help-Wanted 










Advert 


sing 














1 


Ul 
















































1.1 

1 






























































'"^^ 





1971 1972 1973 
SOURCE THE CONFERENCE BOARD 



1974 



1975 



1976 



20 



15 



10 



NUMBER OF WEEKS 



Average (Mean) Duration of Unemployment 



y^ 



V 



'■'''■■■'■■ 



'''*■' ' ■ ■ 



/ 



1971 1972 1973 1974 

SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



1975 



1976 



JULY 
DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT 1975 


JUNE 
1976 


JULY 
1976 




Thousands of Persons 




NUMBER OF WORKERS UNEMPLOYED 
Less Than 5 Weeks 2,868 
5 to 14 Weeks 2,141 
15 Weeks and Over 2,954 


2,618 
2,261 
2,215 

Number of Weeks 


2,951 
2,028 
2,317 


AVERAGE (MEAN) DURATION OF 
UNEMPLOYMENT 15.1 


16.9 


15.8 


JUNE 
1975 


MAY 
1976 


JUNE 
1976 



INDEX OF HELP-WANTED ADVERTISING 
(Index, 1967=100) 81 



94 



96 



22 HEALTH-AMBULATORY CARE 



Visits to Physicians 
Total 634 Million; Drugs 
Most Frequent Treatment 

Based on a study by the 
National Center for Health 
Statistics of physicians in 
office-based patient care 
practice, Americans made an 
estimated 634 million visits 
to physicians' offices in 
1974.* Data from other 
studies indicate that almost 



70 percent of all ambulatory 
medical care occurs in phy- 
sicians' offices. Two of 
every five of the visits 
were made to the offices of 
general and family physicians. 

Drug therapy was the major 
treatment or service admini- 
istered. In 6 out of 10 
visits some form of drug was 
ordered or dispensed. 

Services such as "counsel- 
ing" and "listening", while 



Office Visits to Physicians 
of All Specialties: 1974 




VISITS TO 

OTHER SPECIALISTS 

4.7% 



634 MILLION 
VISITS, TOTAL 



GENERAL HISTORY/EXAM 



29.2 



I 1 1 

Treatments or Services- 
General and Family 
Physicians: 1974 



LAB PROCEDURE/TEST 

I l71 

—^^—i I I 



X RAYS 
—15.8 



INJECTION/IMMUNIZ ATION 
I 23.1 



OFFICE SURGICAL TREATMENT 
7.6 




MEDICAL ' LING/THERAPEUTIC LISTENING 

i3.4 



60.3 



NONE OR OTHER 
1 10.6 








10 



-H 



20 



30 40 

PERCENT 
SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS 



50 



-+- 
60 



70 



difficult to quantify and 
therefore probably dramatic- 
ally underestimated, were 
reported for 1 8 percent of 
the visits. 

Some form of followup was 
planned in at least 8 out 
of 10 cases and only 2 per- 
cent of visits ended in 
hospital admission. The low 
referral rate (2.4 percent) 
supports the contention that 
general and family physicians 



are primary-care providers 
in that they typically give 
patients almost all their 
medical care. 

*Excludes physicians prac- 
ticing in Alaska and Hawaii, 
those physicians whose 
specialties are anesthesi- 
ology, pathology, and radi- 
ology, and all physicians 
in government service. 



1 [ 
PATIENT SEEN FOR FIRST 


1 1 

Prior Visit Statu 
TIME and Family Phy. 

R CURRENT PROBLEM 


1 

s— General 
iicians: 

57.8 

H 


12.2 


PATIENTSEEN BEFORE FO 


■1. 


PATIENT SEEN BEFORE FOR ANOTHER PROBLEM 




30.0 


1 \ 1 


h + h 



10 



20 



30 40 

PERCENT 



50 



60 



70 



1 1 

NO FOLLOWUP PLANNED 



— ■ -— I 1 

Disposition of Patient- 
General and Family 



16.2 



RETURN AT SPECIFIED TIME 



52.0 



RETURN IF NEEDED 



26.5 



TELEPHONE FOLLOWUP PLANNED 
■ 3.3 

REFERRED TO OTHER PHYSICIAN/AGENCY 

ADMITTED TO HOSPITAL 

OTHER 
0.7 



H \ 1 h- 

20 30 40 50 

PERCENT 



10 



60 70 



Special Feature 



the 
elderly 



23 



The older population, defined 
here as persons 65 years old 
and over, has been growing 
much faster than the total 
population and now comprises 
1 of every 10 persons In the 
United States. It is already 
a major segment of our popu- 
lation and is expected to 
continue to grow in numbers 
and relative size, possibly 
for several decades. 

The graphic presentations 
of this section provide 
important background infor- 
mation on the older popula- 
tion. Charts are included 
on numbers and proportions of 
older persons in the popula- 
tion, sex composition, geo- 
graphic distribution, social 
and economic characteristics, 
and the quality of life, 
including health and health 
services. To provide some 
historical and analytical 
perspective on this popular 
tion group, charts and sta- 
tistics are also included on 
the past and future size of 
the older population, parti- 
cularly in relation to changes 
in the total population. 
Charts and statistics are 
presented on such social and 
economic topics as marital 
status and living arrange- 
ments, institutional residence, 
nativity and parentage, edu- 
cation and illiteracy, labor 
force participation and 
major occupation, income and 
poverty, voter participation, 
and crime victimization. 

Most of the statistics in 
this section are taken from 
two Bureau of the Census 
reports— Curre/Jf Population 
Reports, Series P-23, No. 
57, and Series P-23, No. 59- 
entitled, respectively, 
"Social and Economic Charac- 
teristics of the Older Popu- 
lation: 1974" and "Demo- 
graphic Aspects of Aging and 
the Older Population in the 



United States." Some of the 
data in these reports have 
been updated to 1975. Both 
of these reports relied partly 
on material available from 
other government agencies, 
and the appropriate sources 
are cited in the two publi- 
cations. 

Elderly in the U.S. 
Population 

Total Population and 
Population 65 Years and 
Over 24 

Persons 65 Years and Over 
as a Percent of the 
Population: 1900-1975 25 

Projections of the 
Population 65 Years and 
Over: 1980-2040 25 

Living Arrangements of 
the Elderly 

Living Arrangements of 
Persons 65 Years and Over: 
1975 26 

Size of Families With Head 
65 Years and Over: 1975 27 

Marital Status of Persons 
65 Years and Over: 1975 27 

Inmates of Institutions, by 
Type of Institution, for 
Persons 65 Years and Over: 
1970 27 

Geographic Characteristics 
of the Elderly 

Nativity and Parentage of 
the Total Population and 
Population 65 Years and 
Over: 1970 28 

Metropolitan-Nonmetropolitan 
Residence of Persons 65 Years 
and Over: 1970 28 



Mobility of the Population 
Between March 1970 and 
March 1975 28 

Educational Attainment 
of the Elderly 

Highest Grade Completed by 
Persons 65 Years and Over: 
Selected Years 29 

Percent Illiterate Among 
Persons 65 Years and 
Over: 1969 29 

Labor Force 
Participation Rates 

Labor Force Participation 
Rates for Persons 65 Years 
and Over: 1940 to 1975 30 

Labor Force Participation 
Rates for Persons 65 Years 
and Over, by Selected 
Educational Attainment 
Levels: 1974 30 

Occupations of 
the Elderly 

Percent Distribution of 
Major Occupation Groups 
for Persons 55 to 64 Years 
and Persons 65 Years and 
Over: 1975 31 

Median Income of 
the Elderly 

Median Income of the Older 
Population: 1974 32 

Median Income of Families 
and Unrelated Individuals: 
1974 32 

Characteristics of the 
Low- Income Elderly 

Living Arrangements of Persons 
65 Years and Over, Below the 
Low- Income Level: 1974 33 



Low-Income Rates of Persons 
65 Years and Over: 1974 33 

Voter Participation 
Rates 

Voter Participation Rates: 
November 1972 34 

Men, 18 Years and Over 34 

Women, 18 Years and Over 34 

Major Causes of Death 
for the Elderly 

Major Causes of Death for 
Persons 65 Years and Over: 
1974 35 

Death Rates for Population 
65 Years and Over: Selected 
Years 35 

Crime Victimization 
Rates for the Elderly 

Personal Crime Victimization 
Rates: 1973 36 

Household Crime Victimization 
Rates for Selected Crimes: 
1973 36 

Licensed Drivers Among 
the Elderly 

Number of Persons 65 and 
Over per 1,000 Driving Age 
Population, by State: 1974 37 

Number of Elderly Drivers per 
1,000 Licensed Drivers, 
by State: 1974 37 

Elderly Veterans 

Veteran Population: 
June 30, 1975 38 

Elderly Veterans, by Estimated 
Age and Period of Service: 
June 30. 1975 38 

Persons 65 Years and Over 
Receiving Veterans' Benefits: 
June 30, 1974 38 



Z4 tLUtttLY IIM 1 nt U.J>. rurULM MUN 

Population Over 65 million (10 percent of the 
4% in 1900, 10% in 1975 total population) in 1975. 

The fennale population 
The population 65 years old 65 and over grew more rapidly 
and over has increased at a than the male. Their numbers 
rate more than twice that of were quite similar in the 
the total population since earlier decades of this 
1900. The number of elderly century, but women 65 and 
Americans increased from over now outnumber men 
3 million (4 percent of the in the same age category, 
population) in 1900 to 22 13.2 million to 9.2 million. 

MILLIONS OF PERSONS (RATIO SCALE) 
1 nnn 








■ 




































— Total Populatio 












































































































ALLAGES 


— .- 






















































































































































1 








RR 


/EARS AND OVER 


__^^ 


^ 


' 


, i 
















































































































w^'~ 
































■ 1 


















•I 




900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 

POPULATION 1900 1920 1940 1960 1975 

Millions of Persons 
Population, All Ages 76.1 106.5 132.1 180.7 *213.6 
Population, 65 Years and Over 3.1 4.9 9.0 16.7 22.4 

Males 1.6 2.5 4.4 7.5 9.2 

Females 1.5 2.4 4.6 9.1 13.2 

Note: Detailed may not add to totals because of independent rounding. g 
•Estimated. | 

SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



ELDERLY IN THE U.S. POPULATION 



25 



Percentage of Women 
Over 65 Increases 
Faster Than Men 

The proportion of American 
women who are 65 years or 
over nearly tripled from 
4.1 percent in 1900 to 12.1 
percent in 1975. During the 
same period, the percentage 
of older men grew from 4 
percent of the male popula- 
tion to 8.8 percent. 



'Baby Boom' Group 
Will Spur Over-65 
Total in Year 2010 

Projections of the population 
65 and over into the 21st 
century indicate an 
unprecedented period of 
growth between 2010 and 
2030. 

The number of elderly may 
reach 33.2 million by 2010 
and continue to climb to 



51.6 million in 2030, re- 
flecting the attainment of 
age 65 by the post -World War 
II, two-decade baby boom. 

The population in this 
age group is then projected 
to decline over the next 
decade (2030 to 2040) to 
50.3 million, largely be- 
cause of the drop in the 
number of births between 
1965 and 1975. 



14 


PERCENT 
















19 _ 


Persons 6 


5 Years and 


Dver as a Per 


cent of the P< 


opulation: 19 


00-1975 






in - 


















R - 










FEMALE 








R - 












MALE 






A — 




'"^••''■'"^ 














9 _ 


















n - 
















. 



PERCENT OF 

TOTAL 

POPULATION 



1900 



1940 



1975 



Percent 

Females, 65 Years 

and Over 4.1 7.0 

Males, 65 Years 

and Over 4.0 6.6 



12.1 



1900 1910 1920 1930 



1940 1950 



1960 



1970 1980 



MILLIONSOF PERSONS 



55 



50 



45 



50 



35 



30 



25 



20 



Projections for the Population 65 Years and Over: 1980-2040 



























y 












v^ 












r^ 































1980 1990 

SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



2000 



2010 



2020 



2030 



2040 



26 LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF THE ELDERLY 



66% of All Elderly 
Live With Spouse or 
Other Relatives 

Slightly more than half of 
all elderly Americans were 
living in households with 
their spouses in 1975. More 
than one quarter, or approxi- 
mately 6 million persons 65 
years and over, lived alone. 
Contrary to the commonly 



held preconception that 
many older persons are in- 
stitutionalized, only 1 in 
20 was an inmate of an insti- 
tution. The remaining 17 
percent lived with relatives 
other than their spouses, or 
with nonreiatives. 



Living Arrangements of Persons 65 Years and Over: 1975 



Inmates of Institutions 

5% 



With Nonreiatives 

2% 



With Other Relatives 
15% 





. With Spouse 
51% 



PERSONS 65 YEARS & OVER MARCH 1975 





Thousands 




of Persons 


TOTAL 


22,211 


Living With Spouse 


11,405 


Living Alone 


6.008 


Living With Other Relatives 


3.217 


Inmates of Institutions 


1,088 


Living With Nonreiatives 


493 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF THE ELDERLY 



27 



Most Elderly Men 
Are Married; Most 
Women Are Widows 

Families headed by a person 
65 years old and over tend 
to be small. About four out 
of five such families in 1975 
consisted of just two persons. 
Another 13 percent consisted 
of three persons. 

The most common marital 
status among elderly men is 



to be married, with wife 
present. Among women, the 
most common state is widow- 
hood, because men are usually 
older than their wives and 
have higher mortality rates. 

About half (52 percent) 
of the older women were 
widowed in 1975, compared 
with 14 percent of the men. 

The proportions of elderly 
men who were divorced or who 
had never married were similar 



to corresponding proportions 
of older women. 

About 8 out of 10 of the 
1 million persons 65 years 
old and over who lived in 
institutions in 1970 were 
in homes for the aged. 
Twice as many women as men 
were in institutions, re- 
flecting their greater in- 
cidence in homes for the 
aged, as well as their pre- 
dominance among the older 



population. Approximately 
16 percent of the older 
male institutionalized pop- 
ulation was in mental 
hospitals compared with 9 
percent of elderly women. 

NOTE: Nursing homes are 
included in "homes for the 
aged and dependent." 



Size of Families With Head 65 Years and Over: 1975 



5 OR MORE PERSONS 
3% 
4 PERSONS 4% 




Marital Status of Persons 65 Years and Over: 1975 

PERCENT 





- 


2%- 


5% 


■ SINGLE 

"-DIVORCED 

-WIDOWED . 


6% 


- 




„ 




14% 


3% 


90 - 




80 - 














70 - 


- 








52% 


- 


60 - 


- 










- 


50 - 


- 










- 


40 - 


- 




79% 






- 






30 - 


- 






MARRIED- . 




- 


20 - 


- 








39% 


- 


10 - 

n 


- 










- 



1ALE 



FEMALE 



Inmates of Institutions, by Type of Institution, for Persons 65 Years and Over: 1970 

ALL OTHER INSTITUTIONS 4%v ALL OTHER INSTITUTIONS 2% . 

MENTAL HOSPITALS 9%- 

CHRONIC DISEASE HOSPITALS 
3% 




\ HOMES FOR THE AGED 
AND DEPENDENT 



75% 



86% 



MALE: 314,000 




FEMALE: 654,000 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



28 GEOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ELDERLY 



64% of Elderly 
Live in Metropolitan 
Areas; Few Movers 

In 1970, the percentage of 
foreign-born persons among 
the older population (15 per- 
cent or 3.1 million persons) 
was three times as great as 
the foreign-born portion of 
the total U.S. population. 
While native-born persons of 
native parentage were predom- 



inant in both the total popu- 
lation and the population 65 
years and over, the percentage 
was higher in the total popu- 
lation— 84 percent compared 
to 65 percent of the elderly. 
Two out of three persons 
65 years and over lived in 
metropolitan areas in 1970. 
There were nearly as many 
older persons living in the 
central cities of these metro- 
politan areas (34 percent) 



as there were living in all 
nonmetropolitan areas com- 
bined (36 percent). 

The population 65 years 
and over is less mobile than 
the total population. Between 
1970 and 1975, the older popu- 
lation changed residence at 
half the rate of the total 
population. However, more 
than 4 million persons 65 and 



over (21 percent of the 
older population) did move 
during that 5-year period; 
most of them remained 
within the same State. 



90 



PERCENT 



75 -- 



60 -- 



45 



30 -- 



15 -- 



84 



Nativity and Parentage of the 
Total Population and the Population 
65 Years and Over: 1970 



65 



TOTAL POPULATION 
POPULATION 65 YEARS AND OVER 



20 



12 



15 



NATIVE OF 
NATIVE PARENTAGE 



NATIVE OF 

FOREIGN OR MIXED 

PARENTAGE 



FOREIGN 
BORN 



Metropolitan-Nonmetropolitan Residence 

of Persons 65 Years and Over: 

1970 



RURAL NONFARM 

16% 




IN CENTRAL 

CITIES 

34% 



Mobility of the Population 
Between March 1970 
and March 1975 



NONMOVERS 

MOVERS 
SAME STATE 

DIFFERENT STATh 



56 



79 



35 



17 



POPULATION 5 YEARS AND OVER 
POPULATION 65 YEARS AND OVER 



10 



20 



30 



40 



50 
PERCENT 



60 



70 



80 



-f- 
90 



100 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OF THE ELDERLY 



Over-65 Age Group 
Has More Schooling 
Than in Past Years 

The population 65 years old 
and over showed improve- 
ments in educational attain- 
ment between 1960 and 1975. 
This change is a reflection 
of the increasing educa- 
tional levels, at younger 
ages, of persons entering 
the 65-and-over age range. 



(For the most part the 
older population had 
completed their formal 
education several decades 
ago). More specifically, 
the higher educational 
levels of the elderly 
resulted from a lower 
percentage of persons 
ending their education at 
the elementary level and 
higher proportions going 
on to graduate from both 



high school and college. 

In 1960,27 percent of 
persons in this age group 
had completed their educa- 
tion with 8 years of school, 
compared with 23 percent in 
1975. Conversely, the per- 
centage of high school and 
college graduates doubled 
over the same 15-year period. 

The most recent survey 
on literacy (1969) indi- 
cated that nearly 19 per- 



29 

cent of the 3.5 million per- 
sons 65 years and over with 
less than a sixth grade 
education were illiterate, 
that is, unable to read and 
write in any language. (The 
survey, by definition, in- 
cluded in the literate cate- 
gory all persons having a 
sixth grade education or 
more). Older women were 
somewhat more likely to be 
illiterate than older men. 



PERCENT 



ELEMENTARY, 8 YEARS 



HIGHEST GRADE COMPLETED 



1960 



1975 



Elementary, 8 Years 
High School, 4 Years 
College, 4 Years or More 



Percent 

26.8 22.7 

9.9 19.8 

3.7 7.6 



HIGH SCHOOL, 4 YEARS 



COLLEGE, 4 YEARS OR MORE 




Highest Grade Completed 
by Persons 65 Years 
and Over: 
Selected Years 



I960 



1965 



1970 



1975 



PERCENT 



40 - 



30- 



Percent Illiterate Among Persons 65 Years and Over: 1969 



20 - 



10- 



TOTAL 
ALL RACES 

SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



MALE 



FEMALE 



TOTAL 
WHITE 



TOTAL 
BLACK 



30 LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES 



Employed Elderly Men 
Decline as Retirement 
Tends To Come Sooner 

Labor force participation 
rates for men 65 years and 
over have been declining, 
reflecting an increasing 
tendency over the years to- 
ward earlier retirement. 
In 1940, about 49 percent of 
older black and other race 
males, and 41 .2 percent of 



elderly white males were in 
the labor force, compared 
with 20.9 percent and 21 .8 
percent in 1975. 

During the same 35-year 
period, labor force partici- 
pation rates among older 
women fluctuated. For blacks 
and other races, participation 
decreased overall from 12.5 
percent in 1940 to 10.5 per- 
cent in 1975. For whites, 
the rate reflected an overall 



increase from 5.6 percent in 
1940 to 8 percent in 1975. 



PERCENT 




Labor Force Participation Rates for Persons 
■65 Years and Over: 1940-1975 



MALE, BLACK AND OTHER RACES 



MALE, WHITE- 



^^=^ 



LABOR FORCE 








PARTICIPATION 


1940 


1960 


1975 






Percent 




Male, Black and Other 








Races 


49.0 


29.4 


20.9 


Male, White 


41.2 


30.6 


21.8 


Female, Black and Other 








Races 


12.5 


12.9 


10.5 


Female, White 


5.6 


10.0 


8.0 



FEMALE, BLACK AND OTHER RACES 



FEMALE, WHITE 



1940 



1950 



1960 



1970 



1980, 





PERCENT 




























50- 


Labor Force Partic 
65 Years and Ovei 
Attainment Levels 


.ipation Rates for Persons 
', by Selected Educational 








: 1974 






4b.U 




40- 
30- 














MALE 
FEMALE 












25.5 








20- 


10-7 








1 U. / 






9.9 












14.7 








12.4 








10- 
















6.9 


















4.1 








n - 













ELEMENTARY 

LESS THAN 

5 YEARS 



ELEMENTARY 
8 YEARS 



HIGH SCHOOL 
4 YEARS 



COLLEGE 
5 YEARS 
OR MORE 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS AND BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



OCCUPATIONS OF THE ELDERLY 



31 



Elderly Hold More 
White-Collar Jobs 
Than Any Others 

Men and wonnen 65 years and 
over were employed in greater 
numbers as white-collar work- 
ers than any other of the 
four major occupation groups 
in 1975. About 44 percent 
of the employed men and almost 
54 percent of the women were 
in white-collar jobs. 



Within this category, men 
were primarily managers and 
administrators, and women 
were clerical and kindred 
workers. Blue-collar occupa- 
tions were second for elderly 
men (nearly 26 percent), and 
service occupations were 
second for elderly women 
(approximately 34 percent). 

While the proportions of 
white-collar workers were 
similar among men 55 to 64 



years and men 65 years and 
over, the percent of blue- 
collar workers was consider- 
ably higher for the 55-to 
64-year group— 43 percent, 
compared to less than 26 
percent for the older age 
group. Only 7 percent 
of the men 55 to 64 years 
old were farm workers, 
compared to 17 percent 
of men 65 years and over. 



PERCENT 



100 



90 -- 



80 -- 



70 -- 



60 -- 



50-- 



40 -- 



30 -- 



20 -- 



10 -- 



6.7 



8.7 



43.0 



41.6 



16.6 



14.3 



25.5 



43.6 



25.1 



17.0 



56.1 



3.3 



33.9 



9.0 



53.8 



Percent Distribution of 
Major Occupation Groups 
for Persons 55 to 64 Years 
and Persons 65 Years 
and Over: 1975 



FARM WORKERS 

SERVICE WORKERS 

BLUE-COLLAR 
WORKERS 
WHITE-COLLAR 
WORKERS 



55 TO 64 
YEARS 



65 YEARS 
AND OVER 



55 TO 64 
YEARS 



65 YEARS 
AND OVER 



MALE 

SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



FEMALE 



32 MEDIAN INCOME OF THE ELDERLY 



Men Over 65 Have Less 
Than Half the Income of 
Men 55 to 64 Years Old 

Men 6b and over had a 1974 
median income of about $4,500, 
nearly double the $2,400 
median income of women of 
the same age, but less than 
half the $9,900 income of 
men 55 to 64 years old. The 
median income for women in 
the 55-to-64 age group was 



approximately 50 percent 
higher than that of women 
65 years and over. 

Families headed by men 
55 to 64 years old had a 
median income almost twice 
that of those headed by 
men 65 years and over— about 
$14,100 compared with $7,200. 
Those families headed by 
women 55 to 64 years old 
also had higher median in- 
comes than those headed by 



older women but the 
difference was not as pro- 
nounced—about $9,300 com- 
pared with $7,700. 



15 



THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS 



12 



9-- 



6-- 



3 -- 



Median Income of the 
Older Population: 1974 



65 YEARS AND OVER 
55 TO 64 YEARS 



9.9 



4.5 



7 1 



3.6 



15 



THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS 



12 -- 



9-- 



3 -- 



14.1 



7.2 



Median Income of Families and Unrelated Individuals: 1974 



65 YEARS AND OVER 
55 TO 64 YEARS 



9.3 



7,7 



5.9 



n 



3.4 



4.5 



2.9 



MALE 



FEMALE 



MALE HEAD FEMALE HEAD 

FAMILIES 



MALE FEMALE 

UNRELATED INDIVIDUALS 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



CHARACTERISTICS OF LOW-INCOME ELDERLY 



More Low-Income 
Elderly Reside in 
Nonmetropolitan Areas 

The proportions of persons 
65 years and over living 
below the poverty level in 
1974 varied within different 
population groups. Older 
persons living in nonmetro- 
politan areas in 1974 were 
more likely than metropolitan 
residents to be below the 



low-income level— 20 per- 
cent compared to 13 percent. 
Women 65 years and over 
were more likely than men 
in that age group to be 
living below the poverty 
level— 18 percent of elder- 
ly women compared to 12 
percent of older men. By 
race, a considerably larger 
proportion of elderly blacks 
(36 percent) were living 
below the low-income level 



than eldedy whites (14 
percent). 

More than half of all per- 
sons 65 and over who were 
below the low-income level 
1974 lived alone. Another 
6 percent lived with one or 
more persons unrelated to 
them. Thus, less than two- 
fifths (38 percent) of the 
older population lived in 
families, that is, with one 



33 

or more persons related to 
them. 

Three out of ten elderly 
persons below the low-income 
level lived with their 
spouse. 



Living Arrangements of 
Persons 65 Years and Over, 
Below the Poverty Level: 
1974 



LIVING WITH RELATIVE(S) 
OTHER THAN SPOUSE 



LIVING WITH NONRELATIVE(S) ONLY 



LIVING WITH SPOUSE 




LIVING ALONE 



PERCENT 



Low-Income Rates of 
Persons 65 Years and Over: 
1974 



50' 



40- 



30- 



20 



10 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



METROPOLITAN NON- 

METROPOLITAN 

RESIDENCE 



MALE FEMALE WHITE BLACK 

SEX RACE 



34 VOTER PARTICIPATION RATES 



Elderly Men Voting Rate 
Higher Than Others 
in 1972 Election 

Men 65 and over had higher 
voter participation rates in 
the Presidential election of 
1972 than the total voting 
age population. They 
also averaged higher parti- 
cipation rates than women of 
corresponding racial groups. 



Women, on the other hand, 
experienced lower particioa- 
tion rates among the older 
segment of the population 
than among the total voting 
age population. 

Among both men and women, 
white participation rates 
were higher than black rates. 



Voter Participation Rates: 
November 1972 



TOTAL 



MEN, 18 YEARS AND OVER 



BLACK 



WHITE 



64.1 



52.1 



56.3 



70.7 



ALL MEN, 18 YEARS 
ANDOVER 

MEN, 65 YEARS 
ANDOVER 



65.6 



72.3 



10 



20 



30 



40 



50 
PERCENT 



60 



70 



80 



90 



10( 



TOTAL 



WOMEN, 18 YEARS AND OVER 



BLACK 



WHITE 



62.0 



58.4 



52.1 



46.4 



ALL WOMEN, 18 YEARS 
AMD OVER 

WOMEN. 65 YEARS 
ANDOVER 



63.4 



59.5 



10 



20 



30 



40 50 60 

PERCENT 



70 



80 90 



10(, 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



MAJOR CAUSES OF DEATH FOR THE ELDERLY 



35 



Heart Diseases Leads 
as Major Death Cause 
for Persons Over 65 

The major cause of death 
among persons 65 years and 
over is heart disease which 
accounted for more deaths 
among this age group in 
1974 than did the next 
seven causes combined. 



iVlalignant neoplasms (cancer) 
was the second leading 
cause and cerebrovascular 
diseases (strokes) rated 
third. 

The death rate for the 
older population (which 
had dropped from 72.2 per 
1,000 in 1940 to 58.6 per 
1,000 in 1954) did not 
continue its promising 



decline. In fact, over the 
14 years following 1954, 
the rate increased to 62.1 
before resuming a downward 
trend. By 1974, however, 
the death rate for the 
elderly had fallen to 56.8. 



2600- 



Major Causes of Death for Persons 65 Years and Over: Selected Year 1974 

RATE PER 100,000 POPULATION 



2400 



2200 -- 



2000 -- 



1800 -- 



1600 -- 



1400 -- 



1200 -- 



1000 -- 



800 -- 



600 -- 



400 -- 



200 -- 



2538 



100 



80 



Death Rates for the Population 65 Years and Over: 

RATE PER 1,000 POPULATION 




40 



20 



DEATH 
RATE 



PER 1,000 
POPULATION 



1940 
1974 



72.2 
56.8 



1940 



1954 



1968 



1974 



957 



800 



185 



141 



122 



115 



87 



DISEASES OF 
THE HEART 



MALIGNANT 
NEOPLASMS 



CEREBRO 

VASCULAR 

DISEASES 



INFLUENZA, 
PNEUMONIA 



ARTERIO 
SCLEROSIS 



DIABETES 



ACCIDENTS 



BRONCHITIS, 
EMPHYSEMA 



SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS 



36 CRIME VICTIMIZATION RATES FOR THE ELDERLY 



Elderly Crime Victims 
Total 32 per 1,000; 
General Rate is 127 

In 1973, persons 65 
years old and over were 
victimized by crime against 
their person to a much lesser 
degree than the total popu- 
lation. The victimization 
rate was about 127 per 1,000 
population among persons 12 
years old and over, and 



slightly less than 32 per 
1,000 population among the 
older population. Among both 
of these population groups, 
personal larceny accounted 
for about three out of four 
crimes committed against 
them. 

Households headed by a 
person 65 years old or over 
in 1973 were about half as 
likely to be victimized by 



crime as those in the total 
population. 

Burglary and household 
larceny accounted for the 
largest portion of crimes 
perpetrated against house- 
holds, while motor vehicle 
theft accounted for a rela- 
tively minor portion of house- 
hold crimes. 



Personal Crime 
Victimization Rates: 1973 



Household Crime Victimization Rates 
for Selected Crimes: 1973 



140 - 


RATE PER 1000 POPULATION 
1 


120 - 




127.3 


TOTAL 
CRIME 


100 - 


- 




LARCENY . 
PERSONAL 






93.4 




80- 


- 




- 


60- 


- 




- 


40- 


- 




- 




- 






31.6 


- 


20- 


23.1 


n - 













120 -| 


RATE PER 1000 HOUSEHOLDS 


















—\ 






109.3 




100- 












92.7 










HEAD, 12 YEARS AND OVER 
HEAD, 65 YEARS AND OVER 






80- 




















-- 












1 


60- 


















55.3 










40- 


48.4 




20- 
























19.2 




n - 


















5.2 





PERSONS PERSONS 
12 YEARS 65 YEARS 
AND OVER AND OVER 



BURGLARY 



HOUSEHOLD 
LARCENY 



MOTOR VEHICLE 
THEFT 



SOURCE LAW ENFORCEMENT ASSISTANCE ADMINISTRATION 



LICENSED DRIVERS AMONG THE ELDERLY 



37 



Kansas, Florida Lead 
All States in Ratio 
of Elderly Drivers 

Of the 42 states reporting 
their number of licensed 
drivers in 1974, Kansas had 
the highest proportion of 
elderly drivers. 

Approximately 136 out of 
1,000 licensed Kansas drivers 
were 65 years or over. 
Florida ranked second, with 



nearly 130 older licensed 
drivers out of 1,000. Maine 
(126), Oklahoma (120), and 
North Dakota (119) reported 
the next highest numbers. 
Alaska and Hawaii had the 
lowest rate of drivers in 
the 65-and-over age group. 

While Kansas reported the 
highest number of older pop- 
ulation drivers, it had the 
seventh highest rate of 
elderly persons per 1,000 



driving age* population in 
1974. Florida had the high- 
est rate, with 264 older 
persons for every 1 ,000 
persons 16 years or older 
in the 1974 population. 



*Note: Since the "driving 
age" is 16 years in the 
majority of the States 
included, driving age popu- 
lation figures include only 
residents 16 years of age 
and over. 



Number of Persons 65 and Over, Per 1,000 Driving 
Age Population*, by State: 1974 



Number of Elderly Drivers Per 1,000 
Licensed Drivers, by State: 1974 




ALASKA 

ARIZONA 

ARKANSAS 

CALIFORNIA 

COLORADO 

CONNECTICUT 

DELAWARE 

DIST. OF COLUMBIA 

FLORIDA 

HAWAII 

ILLINOIS 

INDIANA 

IOWA 

KANSAS 

KENTUCKY 

LOUISIANA 

MAINE 

MARYLAND 

MICHIGAN 

MINNESOTA 

MISSISSIPPI 

MISSOURI 

MONTANA 

NEBRASKA 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

NEW JERSEY 

NEW MEXICO 

NORTH CAROLINA 

NORTH DAKOTA 

OHIO 

OKLAHOMA 

PENNSYLVANIA 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

TENNESSEE 

TEXAS 

UTAH 

VIRGINIA 

WASHINGTON 

WEST VIRGINIA 

WISCONSIN 

WYOMING 



300 



250 



T- 

200 150 100 

RATE PER 1,000 




150 200 

RATE PER 1,000 



300 



SOURCE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 



38 ELDERLY VETERANS 



2.2 Million Veterans 
Are 65 or Older; Over 
Half Served in WW II 

As of June 30, 1975, an 
estimated 2.2 million vet- 
erans were 65 years old or 
older. About 1.2 million 
elderly persons served dur- 
ing World War II, with 62,000 
of these also serving dur- 
ing the Korean conflict. 
Approximately 963,000 elderly 



persons were veterans of 
World War I, and about 1 ,000 
persons— average age 95.5 
years— served during the 
Spanish-American War. 

Approximately 1.8 million 
persons aged 65 and over were 
receiving veterans' benefits 
as of June 30, 1974. This 
was roughly 8 percent of the 
total 1974 elderly population. 
Among elderly veterans, 
193,000 were receiving com- 



pensation for a service- 
connected disability, 
accounting for about 9 per- 
cent of all veterans receiv- 
ing such benefits. 

There were 620,000 elderly 
veterans receiving pensions 
for nonservice-connected 
disabilities (60 percent of 
all such pensions). Elderly 
dependents accounted for 
about 45 percent of all 
dependents of deceased 



veterans drawing compensa- 
tion, and for one out of 
every three dependents of 
deceased veterans drawing 
pensions. About 15 percent 
(115,000) of all veterans 
hospitalized during the 
fiscal year ended in June 
1974 were 65 years old or 
older. 





PERCENT 






00 " 


Veteran 






90 - 


Population: 
" June 30, 




- 




1975 






80 - 


AGES 






70 - 


- 65 YEARS 
AND 
OVER (2.2 






60 - 


- MILLION) 




~ 


50- 


- 




- 


40 - 


- 




- 


30 - 


ALL 
AGES 
(29.4 




- 


20 - 


MILLION) 




- 


10- 
n _ 


- 




- 



900 



THOUSANDS 



800 -- 



700 -- 



600 -- 



500 -- 



400 -- 



300 -- 



200 -- 



100 -- 



887 



Elderly Veterans, by 
Estimated Age and Period 
of Service: June 30, 1975 



WW II (1,238 THOUSAND ELDERLY VETERANS) 
WW I (963 THOUSAND ELDERLY VETERANS) 

516 



260 



434 



105* 



65-69 YRS. 70-74 YRS. 

'INCLUDES 2,000 WORLD WAR II VETERANS AND 
1,000 SPANISH AIVIERICAN WAR VETERANS. 



75-79 YRS. 



80-84 YRS. 



85 YRS. 
AND OVER 





THOUSANDS 






















700 - 


Persons 65 Years and Over 
Receiving Veterans' Benefits: 
- June 30. 1974 


6199 




621.3 






600 - 










500 - 


- 










■ 


400 - 


- 










■ 


300 - 


- 










• 










226.0 








^ 


200 - 


_ 


193 3 












- 








155.4 


100 J 
n - 







COMPENSATION 

SERVICE 

CONNECTED 

DISABILITY 



PENSION 
NONSERVICE- 
CONNECTED 
DISABILITY 



DEPENDENT OF 

DECEASED VETERAN 

DRAWING 

COMPENSATION 



DEPENDENT OF 

DECEASED VETERAN 

DRAWING PENSION 



HOSPITALIZATION 
DURING 
FY 1974 



SOURCE VETERANS ADMINISTRATION 



Section II 




\W^\i 




K^KJi 1 II 1 lUI 


iixy 


39 




Metropolitan Area 


Local Government 


Education— Earned 




Residential Construction 


Employment in the Ten 


Degrees Conferred 






Largest SMSA's: October 




Estimates of Population 


1975 45 


Bachelor's and Higher Degrees 




(As of July) 40 




Conferred in Institutions 




Number of New Private Resi- 


Average Earnings of Full-Time 
Local Government Employees 


of Higher Education: 1967-68 
to 1974-75 52 




dential Units Completed per 


in the Ten Largest SMSA's: 




1,000 Population 40 


October 1975 45 


Bachelor's Degrees Conferred, 




New Private Residential Units 
Started 41 


Map of the Month 


Five Most Popular Fields of 
Study: 1974-75 52 




New Private Residential Units 
Completed 41 


Combination of Percent of 
Population 65 Years Old and 
Over, 1975, and Per Capita 


Largest Percent Changes in 
Bachelor's Degrees Conferred, 
by Field of Study: 1970-71 




Housing Vacancies 


Income, 1974, U.S. Counties 
46-49 


to 1974-75 52 




Rental and Homeowner 








Vacancy Rates: 1960- 


Mental Health 






1976 42 


Characteristics of State and 






Vacancy Rates, by Area 42 


County Mental Hospitals: 
1950-1975 50 






Black Elected Officials 


Percent Distribution of 






Black Elected Officials in 


Inpatient and Outpatient Care 






the United States: 1969- 


Episodes in Mental Health 






1976 43 


Facilities, by Type of 
Facility: 1955 and 1973 50 






Percent of the Black Popu- 








lation and Percent of Black 


Percent Distribution of Full- 






Elected Officials, by Region: 


Time Equivalent Staff 






1976 43 


Employed in Mental Health 
Facilities, by Discipline of 






Public Employment 


Staff: 1974 51 






City Employment, by Major 


Percent Distribution of Full- 






Function: October 1975 


Time Equivalent Staff, by 


^^m 




(Full-Time Equivalent) 44 


Type of Facility: January 


M 




City Employment, Percent 


1974 51 


T§ 




Change: October 1974- 


Percent Distribution of the 


V 




October1975 44 


Cost of Mental Illness: 1974 






County Employment, by 


51 






Major Function: October 


Percent Distribution of 






1975 (Full-Time 


Expenditures for Direct Care 






Equivalent) 44 


of the Mentally III, by Type 
of Care: 1974 51 






County Employment, Percent 








Change: October 1974- 






' 


October 1975 44 















40 METROPOLITAN AREA RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION 



While Metro Population 
Holds Steady, Housing 
Completions Drop 

Although total new housing 
units completed in the Los 
Angeles and New York SMSA's 
over the 1973-75 period 
were high in absolute numbers, 
the number of new units 
completed per 1,000 popu- 
lation living in those two 
areas was relatively low. 



The population in the Los 
Angeles SMSA remained virtu- 
ally unchanged between 1973 
and 1975, and in the New York 
SMSA it actually declined. 
Taking into consideration the 
net loss of housing units 
in the existing inventory, 
the new units may be adding 
only slightly to housing 
stock or may be inadequate 
to maintain the current level. 



During this 5-year 
period, the Phoenix SMSA 
was a rapid growth area in 
both population and new 
housing completions. 



Estimates of Population* 
(as of July) 



2128.2 
2134.1 
2136.9 



6938.3 
6930.4 
6944.9 



9746.4 
9649.6 
9635.2 



1126.6 




1180.2 




1217.5 








1192 6 




1205.8 




1223.4 








1157.6 




1152.8 




1173.4 








1392.1 




1402.0 




1411.7 





*1975 ESTIMATES PROVISIONAL 

1 1 1 

12.000 9,000 6,000 3,000 

THOUSANDS OF PERSONS 
SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



BALTIMORE, 

MD. 



LOS ANGELES, - 

LONG BEACH, 

CALIF. 



NEW YORK, 
N.Y.-N.J. 



PHOENIX, 
ARIZ. 



RIVERSIDE- 
SAN BERNARDINO- 
ONTARIO, CALIF. 



SAN JOSE, 
CALIF. 



SEATTLE- 
EVERETT, 
WASH. 



Number of New Private Residential Units 
Completed per 1,000 Population 












1 

k 


c 


)2. 

.0 


9 




5.4 










5.7 
5.1 






3.2 






2.8 
2.8 
3.2 












30.9 




21.6 






10.8 










12.1 




10.4 




6.4 












11.2 
9.8 






7.6 










r 


1973 
1974 
1975 


i 


1.5 




4.9 
6 






.4 


Li^ 









—T 
5 




( 

U 

co^ 


1 1 
) 15 20 
/IPLETIONSPER 1,0 


1 

25 
OOPOPULA 


1 

30 
TIO 


35 


4C 



METROPOLITAN AREA RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION 



41 



Most Metropolitan 
Areas Report Drops 
in Housing Starts 

New private residential units 
started in the New York, 
N.Y.-N.J. SiViSA have declined 
75 percent from 1973 to 1975. 
During the same period, the 
Seattle-Everett, Washington, 
SMSA increased 59 percent. 
In 1973, the Los Angeles- 
Long Beach SMSA started 



41,500 residential units, 
while the Phoenix SMSA had 
29,200 starts. 

Residential completions 
lag behind starts due to 
length of time required to 
finish the building. As a 
result, the decline in com- 
pletions was not as drastic 
a decline as in starts. 
The New York SMSA showed a 
14-percent increase in 



completions for 1973 to 
1975, while there was a 
decline in starts. 



New Private Residential Units Started 



New Private Residential Units Completed 



41.5 










21.7 






11.8 






9.3 










36.9 




19.6 




1 


7.0 










29.2 


20.9 






9.3 










19.6 








10.5 








14.1 




12. 


8.- 
10.5 


1 






7 




9.9 




8 


1 








7.1 


1 


7 


9 


1.3 








1 


1 




1 






1 


1 



BALTIMORE 
MD. 



LOS ANGELES- 
LONG BEACH 
CALIF. 



NEW YORK 
N.Y.-N.J. 



PHOENIX 
ARIZ. 



RIVERSIDE 

SAN BERNARDINO 

ONTARIO, CALIF. 



SAN JOSE, 
CALIF. 



SEATTLE- 
EVERETT, 
WASH. 



50 



40 



30 20 

THOUSANDS OF UNITS 



10 




"I r 

20 30 

THOUSANDS OF UNITS 



50 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



42 HOUSING VACANCIES 



Rental Vacancy Rate 
Grows to 5.8 Percent 
During Second Quarter 

The national vacancy rate 
in rental housing in the 
first quarter of 1960 (8.0 
percent) was higher than 
the current 1976 second- 
quarter rate of 5.8 percent. 
However, the honneowner 
vacancy rate during this 
same time period has shown 



little change. The home- 
owner vacancy rates in the 
second quarter of 1976 were 
1.2 percent. 

Inside SMSA's, the 
vacancy rates in both rental 
and homeowner housing in the 
second quarter of 1976 were 
not significantly different 
from the corresponding rates 
outside SMSA's. Inside 
central cities of metro- 
politan areas, the rental 



vacancy rate was 6.3 
percent; in the suburbs, 
the rate was lower, 5.4 
percent. The homeowner 
vacancy rate inside central 
cities was higher, 1.5 per- 
cent, than the rate in the 
suburbs, 1.2 percent. 

Rental and homeowner 
vacancy rates were both 
the highest in the South, 
while the lowest rates were 
recorded in the Northeast, 



during the second quarter 
of 1976. 

NOTE: The data in this 
release are the result of 
a sample survey and are, 
therefore, subject to 
sampling variability. 



PERCENT 




I960 



1961 



1962 



1963 



1964 



1965 



1966 



1967 



1968 



1969 



1970 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



Vacancy Rates, by Area 



RENTAL UNITS 



10 



HOMEOWNER UNITS 





6.4 1 


] 


6.0 [_ 






7.1 


: 


6.3 


5.4 
5.4 

6.1 ^ 
5 1 




' .i! ■ . V?:,- 






1 







T 
5 

PERCENT 



I 



SECOND QUARTER 1975 
SECOND QUARTER 1976 
RENTAL UNITS 



INSIDE 

SMSA'S 

INSIDE 

CENTRAL ! 

CITIES 

OUTSIDE 

CENTRAL 

CITIES 



OUTSIDE 
SMSAS 



1 

5 
PERCENT 



10 



10 



HOMEOWNER UNITS 









.0 




4 


J 


5.0 












6.3 


1 


1 


6,0 










«'!. 


i 


6.6 










6.7 


^m 


B^. Ti ^H 


[ 


i.i 


>^ 






1 





NORTH 
EAST 



NORTH 
CENTRAL 



SOUTH 



WEST 



0.9 



0.9 



1.1 



5 
5 
5 



1.4 
1.6 



1.3 

1.2 



PERCENT 



1 

5 

PERCENT 



10 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



BLACK ELECTED OFFICIALS 



Number of Elected 
Black Officials Rises 
14% Over 1975 Total 

The number of blacks elected 
to public office in the 
United States has continued 
the strong growth which 
began in the mid-1960's. 
In 1976, 3,979 blacks were 
holding elected office, a 
14-percent increase over 



1975 and nnore than triple 
the 1969 figure of 1,185. 

Although the advances 
have been striking, blacks 
still account for less than 
1 percent of the 522,000 
elected officials in the 
country. Blacks comprise 
about 11 percent of the 
population. 

All elected officials are 
included such as county, 
municipal, and judicial law 



enforcement officials, and 
school board members. 

The South, which includes 
16 States and the District 
of Columbia and has more 
than half of the black popu- 
lation, accounts for about 
57 percent of the black 
elected officials. The 
North Central States, with 



43 

about 20 percent of the 
black population, have about 
24 percent of elected offices 
occupied by blacks. 



THOUSANDS OF PERSONS 




1969 



1970 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 1976 



70 



PERCENT 



60 -- 
50 
40 -- 
30 -- 
20 -- 
10 




Percent of the Black Population and Percent of All Black Elected Officials, by Region: 1976 

57 
53 Ut^m I I PERCENT OF THE BLACK POPULATION 



B 



PERCENT OF ALL BLACK ELECTED OFFICIALS 



20 




13 



SOUTH 



NORTH 
CENTRAL 



NORTHEAST 



WEST 



SOURCE JOINT CENTER FOR POLITICAL STUDIES 



44 PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT 

Counties Post Larger 
Employment Gains as 
Big'Cities Cut Back 

While providing many of the 
same types of sen/ices, 
cities and counties have 
traditionally devoted their 
resources to different 
functions. Cities provide 
a greater amount of the 
typical urban services of 
police and fire protection 



and public utilities. 
Counties have more of their 
effort concentrated in the 
area of social services 
such as hospitals and welfare. 

City governments as a 
whole displayed only a 0.6 
percent gain in employment 
between October 1974 and 
October 1975 because of 
significant personnel cut- 
backs in certain large 
cities which offset increases 



in smaller cities. 

All sizes of county 
govemment showed substan- 
tial increases in employ- 
ment over the year. The 
average increase for all 
counties was 4.9 percent. 
The largest increase in 
county employment, however, 
was 9.1 percent in counties 
with 1970 populations of 
200,000 to 299,999 persons. 



City Employment, by Major Function: October 1975 
(Full-Time Equivalent) 



FINANCIAL, 

ADMINISTRATIVE, 

AND GENERAL CONTROL 

7.8% 




EDUCATION 
17.6% 



ALLOTHER 
28.5% 



TOTAL: 2,142,496 



County Employment, by Major Function: October 1975 


(Full-Time Equivalent) 


FINANCIAL, ADMINISTRATIVE, 


AND GENERALCONTROL 


15.4% 

1 


HOSPITALS ^^- 


"T"^^^ 


15.6%\^^^ 


x,^^^ 




X^V WELFARE 




X -^ 9.8% 


V, X \ ^\ ^ HIGHWAYS 


EDUCATION-^^ / \ \/ 9 2% 


19.8% V"^ \ \7 


\y \ y POLICE 


ALL OTHER /\. \/ ^-2% 


22.9% ^~~--^___ __,,-^ 


TOTAL: 1,408,135 



— f 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 1 1 1 1 r 

City Employment, Percent Change: October 1974- 
October 1975 I 

ALL CITIES ■ 



OVER 1,000,000 POPULATION 



500,000 TO 999,999 



300,000 TO 499,999 



200,000 TO 299,999 



100,000 TO 199,999 



50,000 TO 99,999 



LESS THAN 50,000 



H 1 1 H 

12 10 8-6420246 
PERCENT CHANGE 




10 12 14 



-I r 1 r 



n 1 r r 



County Employment, Percent Change: October 1974- 
October 1975 

ALL COUNTIES 




OVER 300,000 POPULATION 



200,000 TO 299,999 



150,000 TO 199,999 



100,000 TO 149,999 



LESS THAN 100,000 



^^^jX^ig^ 




n 10 



6 4 2 2 4 6 
PERCENT CHANGE 



10 12 14 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT 

363 Public Employees 
Per 10,000 Population 
in Large Metro Areas 

Local governments in the 
Nation's 74 largest stan- 
dard metropolitan statis- 
tical areas (SIVISA's) 
employed an average of 363 
persons per 10,000 popula- 
tion in October 1975. 
These 74 SIVISA's contained 
over half the population 
and accounted for 54 



45 



percent of all local 
government employees. 

Among the 10 most popu- 
lous SMSA's, the number of 
public employees ranged 
from 330.6 per 10,000 in 
Philadelphia to 438.6 in 
the New York area. 

The number of local 
government employees is not 
the sole indicator of the 
level of services available 
however, since in some 



areas services such as 
utilities and hospitals 
are largely provided by 
the private sector. There 
also are varying relative 
roles between State and 
local governments with 
respect to some services 
such as education. 

Among the 10 largest 
metropolitan areas, average 
monthly pay in October 1975 
ranged from $867 in Dallas- 



Fort Worth to $1,268 in 
Los Angeles- Long Beach. 




74 LARGEST SMSA'S 

NEW YORK 

CHICAGO 

LOS ANGELES- 
LONG BEACH 

PHILADELPHIA 
DETROIT 

BOSTON 

SAN FRANCISCO- 
OAKLAND 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 

NASSAU- 
SUFFOLK, N.Y. 

DALLAS 
FORT WORTH 



-4- 



4- 



-I- 



Local Government Employment per 10,000 Population 
in the 10 Largest SMSA's: October 1975 




363.0 



438,6 



349.4 



415.0 



330.6 
330.8 



365.6 



411.5 



432.5 



384.6 



361.1 



150 200 250 300 350 

EMPLOYEES PER 10,000 POPULATION 



400 



450 



500 



NEW YORK 

CHICAGO 

LOS ANGELES- 
LONG BEACH 

PHILADELPHIA 
DETROIT 

BOSTON 

SAN FRANCISCO 
OAKLAND 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 

NASSAU 
SUFFOLK, N.Y. 

DALLAS- 
FORT WORTH 



Average Earnings of Full-Time Local Government Employees 
in the 10 Largest SMSA's: October 1975 



1,086 



' 1,063 



1,260 



1,210 



1,268 



1,250 



1,249 
1,200 

1,253 



200 



400 



600 800 

DOLLARS 



1,000 



1,200 



1,400 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



46 



Percent of 
Population 65 
Years Old and 
Over, U.S. 
Counties, 1975 
(Provisional 
data) 







1 


rr^~ 


% 




^/^ 



POPULATION 
D AND OVER 



Per Capita 
Income, U.S. 
Counties, 1974 
(Provisional 
data) 




PER CAPITA INCOME 
IN DOLLARS 



5,000 or Over 

4,000 4,999 

3,000 3,999 

Under 3.000 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



map of 
the month 



49 



Do counties with rel- 
atively more older 
persons tend to be 
the richer or the 
poorer counties? 

The two small maps on the 
opposite page and the large 
map in the centerfold are 
designed to aid in the 
analysis of this and re- 
lated questions. They cate- 
gorize the counties accord- 
ing to their share of older 
persons and their per capita 
income. The first of the 
two small maps depicts by 
county the percent of the 
population 65 years old and 
over in 1975, and the second 
shows the county distribu- 
tion of per capita income in 
1974. 

Four colors are used to 
differentiate the levels of 
each variable in the small 
charts. On the first, the 
yellow counties are those 
with the highest propor- 
tions of older persons while 
the deep red counties have 
the lowest. (A comparison of 
this map and the correspond- 
ing map in the July issue of 
STATUS provides a graphic 
indication of changes from 
1970 to 1975 in the geograph- 
ic patterning of counties 
with respect to the percent- 
age of older persons.) On 
the second map, yellow and 
successively deeper shades 
of blue represent gradations 
from the lowest to the high- 
est per capita income. 

The large map depicts the 
county distribution of the 
two variables in combina- 
tion. When the four color 
classes of each of the 



single variables are cross- 
classified, sixteen colors 
result, each representing a 
particular combination of 
the two variables. 

The primary value of the 
large map is to indicate the 
extent to which certain 
levels of the combination of 
the two variables are geo- 
graphically concentrated. 
If, for example, the geo- 
graphic distribution of the 
combination of the two vari- 
ables in the large map were 
random, the resulting map 
would show no particular 
tendency toward an areal 
concentration of similar 
colors, but instead would 
exhibit a patchwork of small 
contrasting color blocks 
throughout the country. The 
large map does indeed show 
a moderate geographic con- 
centration of particular 
colors, indicating that 
particular combinations of 
the percent of older persons 
and per capita income are 
concentrated in sizeable 
groups of neighboring 
counties. 

The color spectrum dif- 
ferentiating the age varia- 
ble uses yellow and greens 
to identify areas with 
"older" populations (that 
is, areas with relatively 
large proportions 65 years 
old and over) and deep 
oranges and purples to 
identify areas with "young- 
er" populations (that is, 
areas with relatively small 
proportions 65 years old 
and over). Among the 
"older" counties, those 
characterized by low per 
capita income are repre- 
sented by yellow and 



those characterized by high 
per capita income are de- 
picted by deep green. Among 
the "younger" counties, those 
characterized by low per 
capita income are repre- 
sented by deep orange and 
those characterized by high 
per capita income are de- 
picted by deep purple. 
Blues, medium purples, 
violets, and medium oranges 
represent intermediate com- 
binations of the variables. 
There is a pronounced 
concentration of counties 
in the Southeast, particu- 
larly the Deep South and 
eastern Kentucky and 
Tennessee, which have a 
combination of a low propor- 
tion 65 and over and low 
per capita income (orange 
counties). Florida stands 
out as an area with few such 
counties, however. In the 
Northeast along the Atlantic 
coast, and near the Great Lakes, 
there are concentrations of 
counties with relatively 
low proportions 65 and over 
and high per capita income 
(purple counties). This 
combination also appears to 
be dominant in the Pacific 
States and the Far North- 
west. Deep green counties, 
characterized by high per- 
centages 65 and over com- 
bined with relatively high 
per capita income, show a 
large concentration in the 
West North Central States, 
particularly Kansas, 
Nebraska, and Iowa. There 
is another concentration in 
the retirement areas of 
peninsular Florida. The 
Southwest shows a more 
variegated pattern. Here 
low per capita income may be 



associated with either high 
or low percentages of older 
persons. 

A second analytical use 
of the map combining the two 
variables is to indicate the 
degree of relationship (or 
correlation) between the two 
variables in a geographic 
context. Such an associa- 
tion would be indicated by 
the predominance of colors 
on the map shown on one of 
the diagonals in the color 
square and the relative ab- 
sence of the colors off this 
diagonal. If the area on 
the map covered by each of 
the 16 colors or by the four 
colors in the corners of 
the color square is about 
the same, regardless of the 
degree of geographic con- 
centration of the colors, 
little or no correlation 
would be indicated. 

Areas in deep green, 
blue, violet, and deep 
orange reflect a direct re- 
lationship between the per- 
cent 65 and over and per 
capita income, while areas 
in yellow and various red- 
blue combinations from light 
violet to deep purple re- 
flect an indirect relation- 
ship. Examination of the 
map suggests that the rela- 
tionship between the vari- 
ables is quite low; all 
four corner colors appear 
abundantly. In fact, a test 
of the linear correlation 
between the two variables 
shows a coefficient of only 
-.14 (0.0 representing no 
correlation and -1.0 repre- 
senting perfect inverse 
correlation). 



47 



48 



Combination of Percent 
of Population 65 Years 
Old and Over, 1975, 
and Per Capita Income, 
1974, U.S. Counties. 
(Provisional data) 




PERCENT OF POPUIAIION 
65 YEARS OlD ANO OVFR 



5.000 or 
Ovo. 


«o 




0^. C-^ 
(to •- O «3 


4,000 
4,999 








■ 


3,000 
3,999 








1 


Undof 
3.000 











SOUMOt IIUIII >\Mni Mil t I Nt'.l 



50 MENTAL HEALTH 



State, County Mental 
Hospitals Role in 
Patient Care Declines 

Before 1955, State and 
county mental hospitals 
were the major providers 
of psychiatric care in the 
U.S. Although the number 
of admissions to these 
hospitals more than doubled 
between 1950 and 1975 and 
the number of deaths 



declined by two-thirds, the 
number of net releases 
during the same period 
quadrupled resulting in a 
65-percent decrease in 
resident patients in these 
hospitals since the peak 
number reached in 1955. 



Outpatient Services 
Grow From 23% in '55 
to 68% in 1973 

In 1973, State and county 
mental hospitals accounted 
for only 12 percent of all 
patient care episodes in 
mental health facilities 
compared with almost half 
in 1955, indicating a 
significant shift in the 
provision of psychiatric 



care. Outpatient psychi- 
atric services accounted 
for 68 percent of all 
episodes while inpatient 
services amounted to 32 
percent in 1973, compared 
with 33 and 77 percent, 
respectively, in 1955. By 
1973, the federally funded 
community health centers 
program accounted for al- 
most one-quarter of the 
total patient care episodes. 



600 



THOUSANDS 



500 



400 



300 



200 



100 -► 




Percent Distribution of Inpatient and Outpatient Care Episodes 
in Mental Health Facilities, by Type of Facility: 1955 and 1973 



1955 

(1.7 Million Episodes) 



OUTPATIENT 

PSYCHIATRIC 

SERVICES 




VA HOSPITALS 

4°i 

PRIVATE mental! f-*^"^' 
HOSPITALS :<v 

3% 

GENERAL 

HOSPITAL 

INPATIENT 

PSYCHIATRIC 

UNITS 

9% 



PRIVATE MENTAL 
HOSPITALS 7% 

VA HOSPITALS 

5% 

STATE AND COUNTY 
ENTAL HOSPITALS 
12% 



1950 1955 



MENTAL HEALTH 



1960 



1965 1970 



1975 



1950 



1970 



1975 



Resident Patients at End of Year 

Admissions 

Net Releases 

Deaths 





Thousands 




512.5 


337.6 


193.4 


152.3 


384.5 


376.2 


99,7 


386.9 


384.5 


41.3 


30.8 


13.4 




INPATIENT 
COMMUNITY 
MENTAL HEALTH 
CENTERS 

4% 



1973 

{52 Million Episodes) 



OTHER 

OUTPATIENT 

PSYCHIATRIC 

SERVICES 

49% 



OUTPATIENT 

COMMUNITY 

MENTAL HEALTH 

CENTERS 

19% 



SOURCE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH 



MENTAL HEALTH 

VA, States, Counties 
Employ 66% of Staff in 
Mental Health Facilities 

Of the 403,024 full-time 
equivalent positions in 
mental health facilities, 
about 32 percent were pro- 
fessional patient care staff, 
36 percent other patient 
care staff, and 32 percent 
nonpatient care staff. 



More than half of the 
full-time equivalent staff 
were employed in State and 
county mental hospitals, in 
1 974 and one out of ten in 
Veterans Administration 
psychiatric services. These 
two types of facilities 
together account for approx- 
imately two-thirds of the 
total full-time equivalent 
staff employed in mental 
health facilities. 



Mental Illness Costs 
Nation $36.8 Billion 
During 1974 

Of the total 1 974 cost of 
mental illness-$36.8 bil- 
lion—the cost of direct care 
amounted to $14.5 billion or 
about 39 percent of all direct 
health expenditures. The 
remainder of the cost of 
mental illness was attribut- 
able to supportive activities 



51 

(research, training and 
fellowships, facilities 
development, and management 
expenses) and to indirect 
costs (due to death, disa- 
bility, and patient care 
activities). 

Slightly over half of the 
direct care expenditure was 
concentrated in nursing 
homes and in State, county, 
and other public mental 
health hospitals. 



Percent Distribution of Fuil-Tlme Equivalent Staff Employed 
in Mental Health Facilities, by Discipline of Staff: 1974 



NONPATIENT 

CARE STAFF 

32°/ 




PROFESSIONAL 
PATIENT 
E STAFF 



PATIENT 
CARE STAFF 
36% 



TOTAL STAFF = 403,024 



Percent Distribution of the Cost of Mental Illness: 1974 



INDIRECT 

COSTS DUE 

TO DISABILITY 

28% 






"^ 


SUPPORTIVE 


OTHER 




ACTIVITIES 


INDIRECT 


6% 


COSTS 






12% 








TOTAL COST = $36.8 Bl LLION 



Percent Distribution of 
by Type of Facility: Jar 

STATE AND COUNTY 

PSYCHIATRIC 

HOSPITALS 

/ 56% 


Full-Time Equivalent Staff, . 
uary 1974 

OTHER 
10% 

/"\,^ COMMUNITY MENTAL 
/ /\ HEALTH CENTERS 
/ V/ 9% 

/ ^,--''^\ TOTAL NONFEDERAL 
/ ^^-'^ \ GENERAL HOSPITAL 
Z-"'''^ PSYCHIATRIC 




Percent Distribution of Expenditures for Direct Care 
of the Mentally III, by Type of Care: 1974 

GENERAL 
OTHFR MEDICALSERVICES 
NURSING 10% 3% 

^OI^^S 1 ° / COMMUNITY 

\ ° .^ \ \ ~~~"">^/ MENTAL HEALTH 

\/^ I //V CENTERS 

/\ \ / //\^° FREE-STANDING 
/ ^ \ / / y\ OUTPATIENT 
/ \ ///'"^^JV— CLINICS 

/ \ I/y'^^^^^^'^^''''^^ \ PSYCHOACTIVE 

l^^-""^ DRUGS 


^T- -— _____^ j SERVICES 

\ \\ — 7 ^°''° 

\ \ Nv "~~"~T^ TOTAL VA 
\ \ \ / PSYCHIATRIC 
\ \ \ / SERVICES 
\ \ \ V 10% 

^~~~-~-.____ ^--^ PRIVATE MENTAL 


\ ^^"'"'^ \ ^\ ""^PRIVATE PRACTICE 

y^ \ \^ / PSYCHIATRISTS 

\^ / \ ^/'^GENERAL HOSPITALS 
^--..__/_____3'.-^ 12% 




PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALS 
6% 

TOTAL STAFF = 403,024 


STATE, COUNTY, 
AND OTHER PUBLIC 
MENTAL HOSPITALS 

23% TOTAL EXPENDITURES = $14.5 BILLION 



SOURCE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH 



52 EDUCATION-EARNED DEGREES CONFERRED 



1,400 



1,300 



1,200 



1,100 



1,000 



900 



800 



700 



600 



Bachelor's Degrees 
Decline 2.4% in 74-75; 
First Dip in 20 Years 

The number of bachelor's 
degrees granted in 1974-1975 
declined 2.4 percent, the 
first such drop in 20 years. 

An increase in higher 
degrees granted (master's 
and doctorates) during the 
same academic year partially 
offset the bachelor's drop 

THOUSANDS 



so that the total number of 
degrees granted by institu- 
tions of higher education 
fell by about 5,000, or 
0.4 percent. 

For those receiving 
bachelor's degrees in 1974- 
1975, the five leading fields 
of study— based on the number 
of degrees granted— were 
education, social sciences, 

business and management, 
letters, and biological sciences. 



Bachelor's and 
-Higher D^rees Conferred 
in Institutions of 
Higher Education: 
1967-68 to 1974-75 




200 



The number of bachelor's 
degrees awarded in public 
affairs jumped over 200 
percent to 28,597 in the 5 
years between 1970-1971 and 
1974-1975. Over the same 
period the largest propor- 
tional decline was in mathe- 
matics, which dropped by 
about one-fourth to 18,346. 



THOUSANDS 



180 -- 
160 
140 
120 -- 
100 -- 

80 -- 

60 • 

40- 

20- 
0- 



168.7 



136.8 



135.5 



Bachelor's 
Degrees Conferred, 
Five Most Popular 
Fields of Study: 
1974-75 



□ H 



WOMEN 



MEN 



57.9 



1 52.2 



1968 1969 1970 1971 



1972 1973 1974 1975 



EDUCATION SOCIAL BUSINESS LETTERS BIOLOGICAL 
SCIENCES AND SCIENCES 

MANAGEMENT 



PUBLIC AFFAIRS AND SERVICES 
(28,597 DEGREES IN 1974-75) 

COMPUTER AND 

INFORMATION SCIENCES 

(5,039) 

INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES 
(28,479) 

HEALTH PROFESSIONS 
(49,476) 

COMMUNICATIONS 
(19,249) 

MATHEMATICS 
(18,346) 

LETTERS 
(57,933) 

LAW 
(436) 

SOCIAL SCIENCES 
(136,773) 

FOREIGN LANGUAGES 
(18,172) 



207.4% 



1 1 1 .0% 



102.2% 



94.1% 



78.2% 




■26.4% 



21,1% 



20.0% 



12,7% 



11.1% 



Largest Percent 
Changes in Bachelor's 
Degrees Conferred, 
by Field of Study: 
1970-71 to 1974-75 



-40 



20 20 40 



60 



80 100 



120 140 



160 



180 



200 220 



SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 



J 



Section III 



economy 



53 



Gross National Product 

Gross National Product 54 

Inflation Rate 54 

GNP Components 54 

Components of Personal 
Consumption Expenditures 55 

Components of Gross Private 
Domestic Investment 55 

Corporate Profits 

Corporate Profits 56 

Components of Corporate 
Profits 56 

Business Conditions 
Indicators 

Composite Index of Leading 
Indicators 57 

Contracts and Orders for 
Plant and Equipment 57 

Money Balance (Ml) 57 
Industrial Production 

Industrial Production Index, 
Total 58 

By Major Industry Groupings 

58 

By Major Market Groupings 58 

Selected Market Groupings- 
Final Products 58 

Capacity Utilization 
of Materials 

Capacity Utilization in 
Materials-Producing Industries 
59 

Durable Goods Materials 59 

Nondurable Goods Materials 59 

Energy Materials 59 



Advance Report on 
Manufacturers' 
Durable Goods 

Advance Report on 
Manufacturers' 
Durable Goods 60 

New Orders— Selected 
Industries 60 

Shipments— Selected 
Industries 60 

Manufacturing & Trade 
Sales & inventories 

Manufacturing and Trade 
Sales 61 

Manufacturing and Trade 
Inventories 61 

Inventory/Sales Ratios 61 
Advance Retail Sales— July 

Retail Sales— Advance 
Estimates for July 62 

Selected Durable Goods 62 

Selected Nondurable Goods 62 

Retail Sales, by SMSA 62 

Average Residential 
Construction Time 

Average Number of Months 
From Start of Construction to 
Completion for Private 
Residential Buildings: 
1971-1975 63 

Number of New 
Privately-Owned Housing Units 
Started: 1971 and 1975 63 

Housing Starts & Permits 

New Private Housing Units 
Started 64 

Housing Starts, by Region 64 

New Private Housing Units 
Authorized 64 



Housing Authorizations, by 
Region 64 

Value of New Construction 

Value of New Construction 
Work Done 65 

Private Residential Con- 
struction 65 

Private Nonresidential 
Construction 65 

Consumer Price Index 

Consumer Price Index, 
All Items 66 

All Items, Percent Change 
From a Year Ago 66 

Food Group 66 

Commodities Less Food Group 

66 

Services Group 66 

Wholesale Price Index 

All Commodities, Total 67 

Farm Products and Processed 
Foods and Feeds Index 67 

Industrial Commodities Index 
67 

Crude Materials Excluding 
Food (Percent Change) 67 

Intermediate Materials 
Excluding Food 67 

Consumer Finished Goods 
Excluding Food 67 

Agricultural Prices 

Agricultural Prices 68 

Ratio of Prices Received 
to Prices Paid 68 

Selected Prices Received 68 

Selected Prices Paid 68 



Productivity & Costs 

Productivity and Costs, Total 
Private Business Sector 69 

Productivity and Costs, 
Manufacturing 69 

Output and Hours Worked 69 

Total Private Economy 69 

World Trade 



Selected Industrial Countries: 
United States, Japan, France, 
Germany & United Kingdom 70 

Less Developed Areas: 
Oil-Exporting Countries- 
Iran and Saudi Arabia 71 

Other Western Hemisphere- 
Brazil 71 

Other Asia— Hong Kong and 
Singapore 71 

Exports & Imports 

Merchandise Trade Balance 72 
Exports 72 
Imports 72 

Federal Government 
Receipts & Expenditures 

Federal Government Receipts 73 

Federal Government 
Expenditures 73 

Federal Government Deficit 73 

Consumer Installment 
Credit 

Consumer Installment Credit 74 

Type of Consumer Installment 
Credit 74 

Holders of Consumer Install- 
ment Credit 74 

Net Change in Consumer 
Installment Credit Out- 
standing 74 



7n « 



54 GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT 



Second-Quarter Rise 
in GNP Less Than Half 
That of First Quarter 

Revised data for the second 
quarter of 1976 indicates 
that "real" Gross National 
Product (the Nation's total 
output of goods and services 
adjusted to cancel the 
effects of inflation) rose 
at an annual rate of 4.3 
percent, compared with a 



9.2 percent annual rate in 
the first quarter. 

Second quarter output in 
current dollars increased 
S37.9 billion, or 9.6 per- 
cent at an annual rate. 
This was $1.1 billion higher 
than the preliminary esti- 
mate issued a month ago. 

The GNP chain price 
index, a more comprehensive 
measurement of prices, 
edged upward 1.1 percentage 



points to 5.4 percent, an 
increase over the preliminary 
estimate of 5 percent. 

According to revised 
data, real GNP rose $13.1 
billion to $1,259.4 billion, 
compared to the $13.4 bil- 
lion estimate from prelimi- 
nary data. This downward 
revision of $0.3 billion was 
the result of a $1.2 billion 
upward revision in gross 
private domestic investment. 



which was more than offset 
by downward revisions in 
the estimated annual rates 
of increase of personal 
consumption expenditures, 
net exports, and governmem 
purchases of goods and 
services. 



1 7nn - 


BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 












Gross 


National Ft 


•oduct 








1 finn _ 




























1 cLnn 






CURREf 


^JT DOLLAR 


5 


























r 














































_^ 


1 of^n 




i 


^/ ' 


^ 


X 


/^ 






/ 




> 


\/ 




1,100- 


^^^ 


^ CONS 


TANT 1972 


DOLLARS 






y 


■ 










1 rv\r\ - 















900 



BILLIONS OF 1972 DOLLARS 



800 



700 



600- 



500- 



400 



300 



200 



100 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



-100 



GNP Components 



PERSONAL CONSUMPTION 
EXPENDITURES 



GOVERNMENT PURCHASES OF 
"GOODS ANDSERVICES 



GROSS PRIVATE 
-DOMESTIC INVESTMENT- 



NET EXPORTS OF GOODS' 
ANDSERVICES I 



1 



I 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



15 



10 



PERCENT CHANGE, ANNUAL RATES 





1 

Inflation Rate 
(Chain Price Index) 






























1, 


1 

















1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT 



Current Dollars 
Constant 1972 Dollars 
Personal Consumption 
Expenditures 
Government Purchases of Goods 

and Services 
Gross Private Domestic 

Investment 
Net Exports of Goods and 

Services 



Inflation Rate (Chain Price Index) 



,2nd 1st 2nd 

QTR. OTR. QTR. 
1975 1976 1976 



Billions of Dollars | 

1,482.3 1,636.2 1,674.1 I 
1,177.1 1,246.3 1,259.4 I 



767.5 

259.1 

126.2 

24.3 



800.7 

261.9 

167.1 

16.6 



808.6 

263.6 

171.7 

15.4 



Percent Change, 

Annual Rates 

5.4 4.3 5.4 






GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT 



Durable, Nondurable 
Goods Sectors of GNP 
Hit 5-Year Highs 

All major components of 
personal consumption expendi- 
tures and of gross private 
domestic investment record- 
ed increases in the second 
quarter. The durable goods 
sector of personal consump- 
tion expenditures rose $0.9 
billion to $125.2 billion- 



a 5-year high. Since the 
last quarter of 1 974, dur- 
able goods output has risen 
$22.1 billion, or 21.4 
percent. 

Nondurable goods rose $3 
billion to $317.6 billion, 
also a 5-year high. The 
services component, continu- 
ing its steady upward climb, 
rose $4 billion to $365.8 
billion. 



Fixed Investment Up 
to $160.6 Billion, 
Continuing Year Gain 

Fixed investment (gross 
private domestic investment 
less the value of goods held 
in inventory) rose $3.9 bil- 
lion to $160.6 billion, the 
fourth consecutive quarterly 
increase following the 5-year 
low reached in the second 
quarter of 1975. The $3.9- 



55 

billion increase was divided 
between $2.3 billion for non- 
residential investment and 
$1.6 billion for residential 
investment. 

Reversing the $0.9 bil- 
lion decline from $10.4 bil- 
lion to $9.5 billion reported 
by preliminary GNP data on 
the annual rate of inventory 
accumulation, revised data 
show a $0.7 billion increase 
to$11.1 billion. 



BILLIONS OF 1972 DOLLARS 




Components of Personal Consumption 
Expenditures 



NONDURABLE GOODS 




300 



250 



200 



150 



100 



BILLIONS OF 1972 DOLLARS 



-100 



Components of Gross Private Domestic 
Investment 



FIXED INVESTMENT, 
TOTAL 



NONRESIDENTIAL FIXED 
INVESTMENT 




1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



COMPONENTS OF PERSONAL 
CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURES 



Durable Goods 
Nondurable Goods 
Services 



2nd 


1st 


2nd 


QTR. 


QTR. 


QTR. 


1975 


1976 


1976 


Bill 


ons of Dol 


ars 


108.4 


124.3 


125.2 


307.2 


314.6 


317.6 


351.8 


361.8 


365.8 



COMPONENTS OF GROSS 
PRIVATE DOMESTIC 
INVESTMENT 



Fixed Investment 
Nonresidential 
Residential 

Change in Business 
Inventories 



2nd 1st 


2nd 


QTR. QTR. 


QTR. 


1975 1976 


1976 


Billions of Dollars 


147.4 156.7 


160.6 


110.6 112.6 


114.9 


36.8 44.1 


45.7 



-21.2 



10.4 



11.1 



SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



56 CORPORATE PROFITS 



Second Quarter Pace 
of Book Profit Growth 
Slowest Since 1975 

In the second quarter of 
1976, book profits before 
taxes, which include inven- 
tory profits, rose $4.2 
billion to a seasonally- 
adjusted annual rate of 
S145.3 billion. This is 
the smallest increase since 



the current upturn began in 
the first quarter of 1975. 

Profits fronn current 
production, which exclude 
inventory profits, edged up 
SO. 2 billion to a high of 
Si 1 5.3 billion. This is 
33.1 percent above a year 
ago when profits were valued 
atS86.6 billion. 

After- tax profits rose 
$1.4 billion to S81.1 bil- 
lion. 



Retained Profits Up 
$17.7 Billion in '76; 
Tax Liability Rises 

Corporate profit tax lia- 
bility in the second quarter 
increased to S64.1 billion, 
a S2.7-billion increase 
from the first quarter of 
1976. 

Dividends rose $1.3 bil- 
lion to S34.4 billion in 
the second quarter of 1976. 



Undistributed (retained) 
profits were valued at 
$46.8 billion, an increase 
of $17.7 billion over a 
year ago. 





BILLIONS OF DOLLARS, 


ANNUAL RATE 






















Cor 


x)rate Prof 


ts 






/ 










A 




/ 




B 


30KPR0FIT 


S BEFORE' 


« A 


J 


' 










^\ 


( 












/ 


\ 










/\J 


^ \ 1 










1^ 




I / 








i 


1 




I / 








/ 






1/ 








/ 






1/ 








/ 












> 


/ 


■PROFITS F 
^JTPRODUC 


n^^1 








/ 


CURRET 


riON 




J-<» 




y 






^/\ 


/ 


/ 




f 






r] 


V /^ 










r^ 


f 1 


1 / 










f 














PROFITS 


^FTER TAX 










^,-- 












, 


./' 












/ 





























































































































80 



70 



60 



50 



40 



30 



20 



10 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS, ANNUAL RATE 















Components of Corporate Profits 

1 1 




























/ 






TAX LIABILITY-^ 


/ 


/ 








y\ 


f 










^ y 


v/ 






J 






V 






^^^ 










UNDISTRlBU 1 hU 

PROFITS 








-^ 






t ^ 
^^--'^^^ DIVIDENDS 






u-— >=»_ 


...-— n 





























































1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 





2nd 


1st 


2nd 




QTR 


QTR 


QTR 


CORPORATE PROFITS 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Billions of Dollars 




BOOK PROFITS BEFORE TAX 


105.8 


141.1 


145.3 


Profits From Current Production 


86.6 


115.1 


115.3 


PROFITS AFTER TAX 


61.0 


79.7 


81.1 


Dividends 


31.9 


33.1 


34.4 


Undistributed Profits 


29.1 


46.6 


46.8 


TAX LIABILITY 


44.8 


61.4 


64,1 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



BUSINESS CONDITIONS INDICATORS 



Business Barometer 
Posts Smallest Gain 
in Last 7 Months 

According to preliminary data, 
the composite index of 
12 leading indicators, the 
government's barometer of 
future business trends, rose 
0.3 percent in June to 108.6 
percent of its 1967 average. 
This is the smallest increase 
in 7 months and follows a 



downward-revised 0.7-percent 
gain in May. Five of the 
11 available indicators 
posted increases over the 
month, 4 indicators 
declined, and 2 were 
unchanged from May. 

The increase in contracts 
and orders for plant and 
equipment— up $102 million, 
13.6 percent— had the 
largest positive influence 
on the composite index. 



The June level of $8.5 
billion (in 1967 dollars) 
was the highest since 
September 1974. 

The decline in the money 
balance (Ml) had the largest 
negative impact. Ml (in 1967 
dollars) fell a further 
$1 billion to $178.1 bil- 
lion. The June level is only 
0.8 percent above the Janu- 
ary 1976 low of $176.6 billion 
and remains 11.5 percent 



57 

below the January 1973 
high of $201.2 billion. 

The composite index has 
climbed 19.2 percent since 
the February 1975 low of 
91.1, but is still 14.2 
percent below the June 
1973 peak. 



90 



80 



INDEX, 1967=100 



Composite 


Index of Leadii 


ig indicators 


























A 


^■„,J\ 




































r^ ' 








- 


<^" 











































1967 



1968 



1969 



1970 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



12 



BILLIONS OF 1967 DOLLARS 



BILLIONS OF 1967 DOLLARS 



Contracts and Orders for Plant and Equipment 




1 Lifc LJUL LJJLt 

1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



JUNE 
BUSINESS CONDITIONS INDICATORS 1975 



1975 



MAY 
1976 



1976 



JUNE 
1976 



Composite Index of 
Leading Indicators 



Contracts and Orders 
for Plant and Equipment 

Money Balance (Ml) 



Index, 1967=100 

99.4 108.3 108.6 

Billions of 1967 Dollars 

7.4 7.5 8.5 

181.2 179.1 178.1 



210 



200 



190 



180 



170 



160 



150 



1 I 

Money Balance (Ml) 

r 


































/ 











































































































1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



58 INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 



Upward Industrial 
Production Trend 
Slows During July 

Industrial production in- 
creased by an estimated 
0.2 percent in July follow- 
ing rises of 0.9 percent 
in May and 0.4 percent in 
June. This was the small- 
est advance since last 
October. Overall activity 
was dampened somewhat by 



increased strike activity, 
notably in coal mining. At 
130.4, the index was almost 
17 percent above the March 
1975 low. 

The mining and utilities 
index declined 0.5 percent 
following rises of 0.8 per- 
cent in May and 0.2 percent 
in June. Manufacturing out- 
put rose 0.3 percent, the 
smallest gain in 9 months. 

The materials index, 



spurred by a continued 
strong advance in output 
of durable materials, rose 
0.3 percent to 132. Output 
of intermediate products 
rose more slowly in July— 
up 0.3 percent compared to 
1 percent in June. The 
final products index, which 
was unchanged in June, edged 
up 0.2 percent to 1 27.4. 
Output of consumer goods 
was unchanged at 137.3 as 



a downturn, primarily in 
auto assemblies and appli- 
ance production, offset 
modest increases in 
other groups. Business 
equipment, which posted a 
substantial rise early this 
year, rose only 0.3 percent 
in both June and July. 



INDEX, 1967=100 



150 



140 



130 



120 



110 



100 



150 



140 



130 



120 



110 



100 



Industrial Production index, Total 



''''■■''''*''''''''''''''' ^ ''''*''*''■ ■ L , 1- 1. ,L. .X 1 1 L .-i- J- J ' ' ' i i I t I i I i i i I • i t i 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



INDEX, 1967=100 



By Major Industry Groupings 



^c^ ^v^w v^ ^.^-\yvv/ x^ 



1 1 1 1 ■ 



MINING AND- 
UTILITIES 



i / MANUF 



''■''*■*'**'*'*'' 



ACTURING 



-■L t. i, 1- i- A. X. 



' ' ■ ■ ■ L. 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 





JULY 


JUNE 


JULY 


INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Index 1967=100 




Total 


118.4 


130.1 


130.4 


INDUSTRY GROUPINGS 








Manufacturing 


117.0 


130.0 


130.4 


Mining and Utilities 


127.2 


132.4 


131.7 


MAJOR MARKET GROUPINGS 








Products, Total 


120.9 


129.1 


129.4 


Final Products 


119.7 


127.2 


127.4 


Consumer Goods 


126.6 


137.3 


137.3 


Equipment 


110.0 


113.4 


113.8 


Business Equipment 


127.3 


135.2 


135.6 


Intermediate Products 


125.0 


136.4 


136.8 


Materials 


114.5 


131.6 


132.0 



SOURCE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 



INDEX, 1957=100 



150 




150 



1973 
INDEX, 1967=100 



1974 



1976 



1976 




120 



110 



100 



Selected Market Groupings- 
Final Products 



: CONSUMER GOODS,- 
TOTAL 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



'«> 



CAPACITY UTILIZATION OF MATERIALS 



59 



Factory Operating 
Rate Rises to 80.5%, 
Highest Since 1974 

The factory operating rate 
in materials-producing in- 
dustries rose to 80.5 per- 
cent in the second quarter 
of 1976. This was the 
highest rate since the 
fourth quarter of 1974. 

The rate for industries 
producing durable goods 



materials jumped to 76 
percent of capacity, a 2.9- 
percentage point gain over 
the previous quarter. The 
operating rate has risen 
a total of 1 1 .6 percentage 
points from the second- 
quarter 1975 low of 64.4 
percent. 

In nondurable goods 
materials, the rate of in- 
crease slowed in the second 
quarter to a rate of 86.2 



percent. This followed a 
sharp gain of 13.3 percent- 
age points between the 
second quarter of 1975 
and the first quarter 
of 1976. 

The factory operating 
rate in energy materials 
industries declined slightly, 
to 84.5 percent in the 
second quarter of 1976. 



100 



PERCENT 




Capacity Utilization in Materials-Producing Industries 



80 



70 



,TOTAL 



" 60 -J ' •- 



-X L- 



_l I 1_ 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



PERCENT 



PERCENT 



100 



90 



80 



70 



60 



1 1 
Durable Goods Materials 





























































































100 



90 



80 



70 



60 



1 1 
Nondurable Goods Materials 





























































































1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



1971 1972 1973 1974 



1975 



1976 



too 



1 90 



80 



70 



60 



PERCENT 







































Energy 


Materials 














































1 1 . 


> > 1 













2ND 


1ST 


2ND 


CAPACITY UTILIZATION 


QTR. 


QTR. 


QTR. 


OF MATERIALS 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Percent 




MATERIALS, TOTAL 


70.6 


78.9 


80.5 


Durable Goods Materials 


64.4 


73.1 


76.0 


Nondurable Goods Materials 


72.5 


85.8 


86.2 


Energy Materials 


85.2 


85.3 


84.5 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE 



60 ADVANCE REPORT ON MANUFACTURERS' DURABLE GOODS-JULY 



Record Jump of 14.1% 
Posted for Nondefense 
Capital Goods in July 

According to advance data, 
new orders for nondefense 
capital goods,* considered 
a barometer of capital- 
spending plans by business, 
jumped a record 14.1 percent 
(SI. 7 billion) in July to 
$13.5 billion. A sharp 
decline in new orders for 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



defense capital goods was 
partially offsetting. 

Overall, new orders for 
durable goods slipped $238 
million (0.5 percent). An 
$890-million boost in new 
orders for nonelectrical 
machinery was outweighed by 
a $727-million drop in new 
orders for electrical machine- 
ry and a $318-million de- 
crease in new orders for 
primary metals. Total new 



140 



130 



120 



110 



100 



90 



80 



70 



60 



10 



Advance Report on 
Manufacturers' Durable 
-Goods— July - 



/ 



UNFILLEDORDERS- 



/ 



A 




\ NEWORDERS, EXCLUDING 

TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



orders, estimated at $49.7 
billion, were 19.9 percent 
above a year earlier. 

Shipments of durable goods 
rose $110 million to $48.6 
billion. A S524-million rise 
in shipments of nonelectrical 
machinery was partially off- 
set by a $495-million decline 
in transportation equipment. 
The backlog of unfilled 
orders rose $1.1 billion to 
$117.5 billion. 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



*lnclude nonelectrical 
machinery (except farm and 
machinery shops), electrical 
machinery (except household 
appliances and electronic 
components), and the non- 
defense portions of ship- 
building and repair, rail- 
road and communication 
equipment, aircraft, air- 
craft parts, and ordnance. 



New Orders — Nondf^'pi^p 








Capital Goods 










Industries 



























































14 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



1976 



12 — New Orders— Selected Industries - 



10 



NONELECTRICAL 
-MACHINERY. 
/ 



PRIMARY METALS/ 



''■■■■ 



*'■■■■■'■'' 



14 
12 
10 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



— Shipments— Selected Industries. 



^TRANSPORTATION 
— EQUIPMENT- 



NONELECTRICAL MACHINERY 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



ADVANCE REPORT ON 


JULY 


JUNE 


JULY 


MANUFACTURERS' DURABLE 


1975 


1975 


1976 


GOODS 












Billions of Dollars 




New Orders for Durable Goods 


41.4 


49.9 


49.7 


Nondefense Capital Goods 


10.7 


11.8 


13.5 


Defense Capital Goods 


1.8 


2.5 


1.1 


Nonelectrical Macfiinery 


7.4 


8.0 


8.9 


Electrical Machinery 


5.3 


6.7 


5.9 


Primary Metals 


5.9 


8.1 


7.8 


New Orders, Excluding Transportation 


31.6 


38.0 


37.7 


Shipments of Durable Goods 


41.4 


48.5 


48.6 


Nonelectrical Machinery 


7.3 


8.0 


8.6 


Transportation Equipment 


9.5 


11.9 


11.4 


Unfilled Orders, Durable Goods 


119,2 


116.5 


117.5 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



MANUFACTURING & TRADE SALES & INVENTORIES 



Total Sales in June 
Go Up $2.4 Billion as 
Wholesale Sets Pace 

Resuming its climb, total 
manufacturing and trade sales 
rose $2.4 billion in June to 
$188.7 billion. About 60 
percent of the increase was 
centered in the wholesale 
sector which reported a 
$1.5 billion gain. Recovering 
from a May decline, retail 



sales rose $979 million. 
Manufacturers' sales edged 
down $59 million. For the 
second quarter, combined 
sales rose about 1.7 percent, 
considerably slimmer than 
the 4.7-percent increase in 
the first quarter of 1976. 

Combined business inven- 
tories advanced $3.3 billion 
in June, the largest increase 
since December 1974. Manu- 
facturers' inventories, which 



rose $1.7 billion, accounted 
for more than half of the June 
gain. Retail inventories, 
which were little changed in 
May, rose $961 million in 
June; and wholesale inven- 
tories rose $618 million. 
Total inventories rose more 
during the second quarter 
than during the first— up 
2.3 percent compared to 1 .8 
percent. 



61 

The total stock- to-sales 
ratio was unchanged in June 
at 1.46. The manufacturing 
ratio rose for the first 
time since last November 
reflecting the halt in sales 
gains. The retail ratio 
edged down to 1.42; and the 
wholesale ratio returned to 
the April level of 1.19. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



300 



BILLIONSOF DOLLARS 



250 



200 




100 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



MANUFACTURING & TRADE SALES 


JUNE 


MAY 


JUNE 


INVENTORIES 


1975 


1976 


1976 


SALES 




Billions of Dollars 




Manufacturing and Trade, Total 


165.8 


186.3 


188.7 


Manufacturing 


81.0 


94.1 


94.0 


Retail Trade 


48.6 


52.9 


53.8 


Wholesale Trade 


36.2 


39.4 


40.9 


INVENTORIES 








Manufacturing and Trade, Total 


263.7 


272.5 


275.9 


Manufacturing 


148.1 


149.0 


150.8 


Retail Trade 


70.8 


75,7 


76.7 


Wholesale Trade 


44.9 


47.8 


48.4 


INVENTORYTO-SALES RATIOS 




Ratio 




Manufacturing and Trade, Total 


1.59 


1.46 


1.46 


Manufacturing 


1.83 


1.58 


1.60 


Retail Trade 


1.46 


1.43 


1.42 


Wholesale Trade 


1.19 


1.21 


1.19 



300 



250 



200 




150 



100 



50 



MANUFACTURING 



RETAIL 

\ 



WHOLESALE 



Q I I . 1 I I I I . I I . I . I 1 i 1 1 . i . . . 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 
RATIO 




1 Q 1 ..Ill I ■ I t I I I I I I I t I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I t . I I I t I I I I t I I I t I I I I I I I I I 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



62 ADVANCE RETAIL SALES-JULY 



Total Retail Sales 
Decrease in July 
by S642 Million 

Advance data for July indi- 
cate that total retail sales 
declined from S642 million 
in June to S53.2 billion. 
It was the second downturn 
in the last 3 months. Sales 
of automotive dealers, 
which fell $342 million, 
accounted for more than 



half of the July drop. 
Automotive sales, estimated 
at S10.1 billion in July, 
were 5.2 percent below the 
April peak but almost 1 5 
percent above July 1975. 
Sales of durable goods 
slipped 3316 million, re- 
turning to the May level of 
81 7.4 billion. Sales of 
nondurable goods declined 
3320 million, erasing about 
half the June gain: General 



merchandise stores reported 

a 3225 million decline and 

food store sales dipped 

3216 million. Sales of 

gasoline service stations 

rose over the month— up 

378 million. 

RETAIL SALES IN SELECTED 

SMSA's* All selected 

areas reported increases 

in June from year-ago 

levels. The Detroit area 

reported the largest 



percentage gain— up 16 per- 
cent to 31.07 billion. 
Sales in the Chicago area 
were about 14 percent abo» 
last June, and Los Angeles- 
Long Beach sales were up 
about 13 percent. Sales 
in the New York— Nassau- 
Suffolk area, which were 
below year-ago levels in 
May were about 5 percent 
above June 1975. 
*Not seasonally adjusted. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




Q i*'«»**'»*'«f««»^ I»*iittiiiiili»ii»tiiiiiiitttitiiiitl»t»itii^tii 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



CHICAGO, 
ILL. 



DETROIT, 
MICH. 



LOS ANGELES- 
LONG BEACH, 
CALIF 

NEW YORK 

NASSAU-SUFFOLK, 

NEW YORK 



PHILADELPHIA, 
PA. 



SAN FRANCISCO- 
OAKLAND, 
CALIF. 



1.74 



1.97 



0.92 
1.07 



1.65 



1.86 



2.13 
2.23 



1.02 
1.10 



Retail Sales 
by SMSA 



0.74 
0.82 



JUNE 1975 
JUNE 1976 



0.5 



1 1.5 2 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



2.5 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



Selected Durable Goods 


























\ 


tlOTIVE DE^ 


kLERS 








AUTOi 



























1971 1972 1973 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



1974 



1975 



1976 




GENERAL MERCHANDISE 
GROUP WITH NONSTORES 



GASOLINE SERVICE. 
STATIONS I 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 





JULY 


JUNE 


JULY 


RETAIL SALES JULY ADVANCE 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Billions of Dollars 




Retail Sales, Total 


49.4 


53.8 


53.2 


Total Sales, Excluding 








Automotive Groups 


40.6 


43.4 


43.1 


Durable Goods 


15.4 


17.8 


17.4 


Automotive Dealers 


8.8 


10.5 


10.1 


Nondurable Goods 


34.0 


36.1 


35.8 


Food Stores, Total 


11.2 


11.7 


11.5 


General Merchandise Group 


7.9 


8.5 


8.3 


Gasoline Service Stations 


3.8 


3.9 


4.0 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



AVERAGE RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION TIME 



63 



New Apartments Take 
12 Months to Finish; 
Up From 872 in 1971 

The average length of time 
from start of apartment 
building construction to 
completion has increased in 
each of the past 5 years— 
from 8y2 months for those 
completed in 1971 to 12 
months for those completed 
in 1975. 



The average length of 
time from start to completion 
of single-family houses re- 
mained virtually unchanged 
at approximately 6 months 
during the past 3 years, 
compared with about 5 months 
in 1971 and 1972. 

The increase in completion 
time for one-family houses 
can be attributed to the 
increase in the average size 
of the dwellings. The 



longer construction time for 
apartment buildings can be 
attributed to market condi- 
tions and financing arrange- 
ments which resulted in 
outright suspension of con- 
struction for a period of 
time or deliberate stretch- 
out of completion time. 



NUMBER OF MONTHS 



'2- 



0- 



8- 



6- 



4- 



2- 



Average Number of Months From Start of Construction 

to Completion for Private Residential Buildings: 1971-1975 



BUILDINGS WITH- 

1 UNIT 

2-4 UNITS 

5 UNITS OR MORE 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



Number of New Privately 
Owned Housing Units 
Started: 1971 

/ 1 1,151,000 

1971 TOTAL = \. 

2,052,000 UNITS ^"-^..._ 


1/ 


781,000 \ 
/\)y^ 120,000 





Number of New Privately 






Owned Housing Units 






Started: 1975 


892,000 


\\ 204,000 / 


1975 TOTAL = ^ 


v^^^ y 


A V^j:^^ 64,000 


1,160,000 UNITS 


^^~~...___ ^/ 







SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



64 HOUSING STARTS & PERMITS 



Private Housing 
Starts Down 9.2% 
to 1.4 Million Rate 

Privately-owned housing units 
started in July declined 9.2 
percent to a seasonally- 
adjusted annual rate of 
1,387,000 after two consecu- 
tive monthly increases. 
Single-fannily units were 
down 21,000 units, while 
multifamily structures slipped 



1 1 9,000 units to the lowest 
level since February. This 
was the largest unit decrease 
in multifamily structures 
since the 140,000 unit de- 
cline in July 1974. 

The South and the North 
Central regions showed the 
greatest unit declines of 
51,000 (8.6 percent) and 
45,000 units (11.4 percent), 
respectively. 



Authorized Permits 
for Private Housing 
Increased 6% in July 

New privately-owned housing 
construction was authorized 
in July at a seasonally- 
adjusted annual rate of 
1,219,000 units, the highest 
rate since April 1974. This 
is 6 percent above the June 
revised rate and 20 percent 
ahead of the rate a year ago. 



Permits for single-family 
units rose 46,000 units an 
multifamily units increase 
23,000 units. 

The regions with the 
greatest unit increases wer 
the Northeast, up 23,000 
units (18.4 percent) and 
the West, up 53,000 units 
(14.8 percent). 



3,000 



THOUSANDS OF UNITS 



2,500 



2,000 



1,500 



1,000 



500 



New Private Housing Units Started 



M— 



^ 



— TOTAL 



SINGLE-FAMILY 

-UNITS ■ 

/ 



-^■^ 



■\J 



MULTIFAMILY UNITS" 



■■''■■■■' 



'■■■■'''■'' 




3,000 



2,500 



2,000 



1,500 



1,000 



500 



THOUSANDS OF UNITS 



New Private Housing Units Authorized 
(14,000 Permit-Issuing Places) 




1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



1,250 



1,000 



THOUSANDS OF UNITS 



THOUSANDS OF UNITS 




1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1,250 



1,000 



1976 




1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



HOUSING STARTS 



JULY 
1975 



JUNE 
1976 



JULY 
1976 



Thousands of Units 

TOTAL UNITS STARTED 1,207 1,527 1,387 

Single-Family Units 916 1,149 1,128 

Units in Multifamily Structures 291 378 259 

BY REGION 

Northeast 178 171 138 

North Central 310 396 351 

South 418 590 539 

West 301 370 359 

SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



HOUSING AUTHORIZATIONS 



TOTAL UNITS AUTHORIZED 

Single-Family Units 

Units in Multifamily Structures 

BY REGION 
Northeast 
North Central 
South 
West 



JULY 
1975 



JUNE 
1976 



JULY 
1976 



'I' 



Thousands of Units 
1,016 1,150 1,219 



699 


829 


875 


317 


321 


344 


135 


125 


148 


275 


298 


273 


309 


368 


386 


297 


359 


412 



VALUE OF NEW CONSTRUCTION 



65 



Public Construction 
Paces 1.6% Increase; 
First in 2 Months 

Following two consecutive 
monthly declines, the value 
of new construction work done 
(in current dollars) increased 
1.6 percent in June to an 
annual rate of $142.5 billion. 

In real terms (expressed 
in constant 1967 dollars), 
the pace of new construction 



activity rose 0.3 percent to 
$71.7 billion, still about 
4 percent below the 1976 peak 
of $74.6 billion reached in 
March. Public construction, 
rising $0.9 billion (5.1 
percent) to a $18.6 billion 
annual rate, accounted for 
the entire increase. Private 
construction, dipping 1.1 per- 
cent to a $53.1 billion 
annual rate, was partially 
offsetting. 



Multiunit Residential 
Building Accounts for 
All of Housing Rise 

The June rise reflected in- 
creased construction activity 
on residential buildings and 
reduced activity in the non- 
residential buildings sector. 
Multiunit residential struc- 
tures accounted for all of 
the rise in residential new 
construction, with the pace 



of activity on one-unit 
structures remaining the 
same. 

New construction on non- 
residential buildings dropped 
4.7 percent; construction of 
industrial buildings plum- 
meted 5.7 percent, while 
commercial buildings 
dropped 4.8 percent. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



BILLIONS OF 1967 DOLLARS 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 




Q I I « I I ........... I ........... I 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



30 



20 



BILLIONS OF 1967 DOLLARS 



10 



Private Nonresidential Construction 



COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 
_U 



INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 
\ 



lltlM'* .■.■litiiiiiiiiili.ii»iiitiiltJiiiim*iliiii 




1971 



1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 





JUNE 


MAY 


JUNE 


VALUE OF NEW CONSTRUCTION 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Billions of Dollars 




CURRENT DOLLARS, TOTAL 


129.7 


140.3 


142.5 


CONSTANT 1967 DOLLARS, TOTAL 


68.4 


71.5 


71.7 


Private Construction 


48.9 


53.7 


53.1 


Residential Buildings 


25.6 


29.4 


29,7 


Single-Family Structures 


14.6 


20.2 


20.2 


Multifamily Structures 


3.8 


3.3 


3.6 


Nonresidential Buildings 


13.0 


12.8 


12.2 


Commercial 


6.2 


6.2 


5.9 


Industrial 


4.1 


3.5 


3.3 


Public Construction 


19.5 


17.7 


18.6 



66 CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 

Food Prices Slow, 
Gasoline Costs Rise 
as July CPI Up 0.5% 

The consumer price index for 
all items rose a seasonally 
adjusted 0.5 percent in 
July, about the same as in 
recent months. 

Declines in some food 
prices— notably meats— 
partially offset higher 
prices for a variety of 



other goods and services, 
particularly gasoline, 
apparel, used cars, medical 
care and transportation 
services, mortgage interest 
costs, and dairy products. 
The unadjusted July index 
was 171.1, an increase of 
5.4 percent since July 1975. 
The food index edged up 
0.1 percent in July following 
a 0.2 percent rise in June. 
A 1.1 percent increase in 



dairy products was offset 
by a 1.6 percent decline in 
meats, poultry, and fish. 

The commodities less food 
index rose 0.6 percent com- 
pared with 0.5 percent in 
June. Almost one-fourth of 
the July increase was due to 
higher gasoline prices. The 
gasoline and motor oil index, 
which rose 2.1 percent in 
June, increased a further 
1.5 percent in July. Apparel 



commodities rose more in 
July— up 0.6 percent. 

The services index advance 
0.6 percent, matching the 
June rise. The medical ser- 
vices index, reflecting 
higher charges for hospital 
services, rose 1.1 percent. 
Spurred by higher auto in- 
surance costs, the trans- 
portation services index 
rose 0.9 percent. 



200 



180 



160 



140 



120 



100 



14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 



INDEX, 1967=100 



INDEX, 1967=100 



\ \ r~~ 

Consumer Price Index— All Items 



. . ■ ■ . ■ ■ 1 1 . ■ I t 1 1 . 1 1 1 . 1 



200 



1971 



PERCENT 



972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 





1 1 1 

Consumer Price Index-All Items 




























PERCENT 
CHANGE 


"V 












FROM A 
YEAR 


V, 


V-c 








/ 


AGO* 




Ihrt^ 






^^'^•^ 


X 























1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 



ALL ITEMS, TOTAL 
(Index, 1967=100)' 
Percent Change From a Year Ago* 



BY COMMODITY AND SERVICE 

GROUPS 

Food 

Meats, Poultry, and Fish 

Dairy Products 
Commodities Less Food 

Apparel Commodities 

Gasoline and Motor Oil 
Services 

Transportation Services 

Medical Care Services 

'Not seasonally adjusted 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



JULY 


JUNE 


JULY 


1975 


1976 


1976 


162.3 


170.1 


171.1 


9.7 


5.9 
Index, 1967=100 


5.4 


177.8 


181.0 


181.2 


184.8 


184.0 


181.1 


155.5 


168.4 


170.2 


149.8 


156.0 


156.9 


141.2 


145.0 


145.8 


173.9 


174.0 


176.6 


166.9 


179.9 


181.0 


151.1 


173.2 


174.7 


180.3 


195.8 


197.9 




100 



220 



200 



180 



160 



140 



120 



100 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



INDEX, 1967=100 



Services Group 



MEDICAL CARE SERVICES 
\ 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 






WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX 

Foods Index 
Declines 1% in June; 
Industrial Up 0.7% 

The all commodities index 
rose a modest 0.3 percent 
(seasonally adjusted) in 
July, about the same as the 
increases posted in May and 
June. The combined farm 
products and processed foods 
and feeds index declined for 
the first time in 4 months- 



down 1 percent to 185.7 
Chiefly reflecting sharp 
rises in fuels, metals, 
and wood products, the in- 
dustrial commodities index 
advanced 0.7 percent to 181.8. 
This was the largest increase 
since last November. 

On a stage-of-processing 
basis, the crude materials 
index (excluding foods, feeds, 
and fibers) climbed 3.8 
percent. The intermediate 



materials index (excluding 
foods and feeds) moved up 
0.5 percent following a 0.7- 
percent gain in June. A 
0.7-percent increase in 
consumer finished goods 
other than food followed a 
0.6-percent increase in June 
and little change during 
the first 5 months of 1976. 



67 

NOTE: July data reflect 
changes in the sample of 
commodities used in calcu- 
lating the wholesale price 
indexes. The July WPI in- 
cludes 2,677 items compared 
to 2,657 in January when the 
last change was made— 15 
items were dropped due to a 
decline in market importance, 
and 35 products were added 
to the industrial commodities 
component of the WPI. 



INDEX 1967=100 



PERCENT CHANGE, 1-MONTH SPAN 



!00- 



Wholesale Price Index All Commodities, Total 




ALL COMMODITIES INDEX* 
(scale at left) 



I I I I I I -2 



INDEX 1967=100 




^Q I ' ■ ' ■ ■ ' I ■ ' ' ■ I ' ' ■ ■ ' t I I I 1 I I I I 1 I I I 1 ^ I I I I I > I . I I I I I I I t I 1 I I I 1 I I . 1 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 







JULY 


JUNE 


JULY 


WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX 




1975 


1976 


1976 


ALL COMMODITIES, TOTAL 










(Index, 1967=100)* 




175.7 


183.1 


184.3 


Percent Change, 1-Month Span 




0.8 


0.4 


0.3 


BY COMMODITY CLASSIFICATION 




Index, 1967=100 




Farm Products and Processed 










Foods and Feeds, Total 




185.4 


187.5 


185.7 


Industrial Commodities 




170.4 


180.5 


181.8 


BY STAGE OF PROCESSING 




Percent Change, 1 -Month Span 


Crude Materials, Excluding Food 




0.2 


1.4 


3.8 


Intermediate Materials, Excluding 


Food 


0.1 


0.7 


0.5 


Consumer Finished Goods, Excluc 


ing 








Food 




0.7 


0.6 


0.7 



*Not Seasonally Adjusted 



PERCENT CHANGE, 1-MONTH SPAN 



By Stage of Processing 



Ji^^-^'/^^ 



4 ''■■■'■■'■■■''■■''■'■*'■'■'■■■''■■'''■''' F ■■'■'■'■''■■ ' 



CRUDE MATERIALS, 
EXCLUDING FOOD 




1971 1972 1973 1^74 1975 1976 



PERCENT CHANGE, 1-MONTH SPAN 




.4 \ t I I I I 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 t I I I 1 I I 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



PERCENT CHANGE, 1-MONTH SPAN 




1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



68 AGRICULTURAL PRICES 



Farmers' Prices Hold 
Steady Following 
3 Monthly Increases 

Following increases during 
the 3 previous months, the 
index of prices received by 
farmers for all farm products 
held steady at 196 during the 
month ended July 15. 

The index for prices paid 
by farmers (for commodities 
and services, interest, taxes. 



and farm wage rates) was 
195, also unchanged from 
mid-June. 

The ratio of prices 
received to prices paid 
remained at 1 .01 . 



Farm Family Prices 
Paid for Living Items 
Increase 1% 

The oil-bearing crops index 
increased 18 points (8 per- 
cent) to 240; soybeans at 
S6.73 per bushel were 57 cents 
above June. Cotton rose 
38 points (13 percent) to 
340. The meat animals index 
declined 1 1 points (6 percent) 
to 176, as average prices 



received for beef cattle, 
hogs, and calves showed sub- 
stantial declines. 

Prices paid for family 
living items was 2 points 
(1 percent) higher than in 
mid-June. This was due to 
rises in prices paid for 
food, autos and auto sup- 
plies, and clothing and 
textiles. The production 
items index, at 199, was un- 
changed from mid-June. 



240 



220 



200 



180 



160 



140 



T20 



100 



1.5 
1.4 
1.3 
1.2 
1.1 
1.0 
0.9 



INDEX, 1967=100 



I I 

Agricultural Prices 




340 



INDEX, 1967=100 



Ratio of Prices 


i 








Received to 
Prices Paid 


k 


A 










A 


\ 










/ 


V/A 








J 


J 


V 


V/N 






r./"^ 








KX^ 




1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



AGRICULTURAL PRICES 



PRICES RECEIVED BY FARMERS 
Meat Animals 
Oil Bearing Crops 
Cotton 

PRICESPAID BY FARMERS 
Family Living Items 
Production Items 

RATIO OF PRICES RECEIVED 
TO PRICES PAID 



JULY 15, 


JUNE 15, JULY 15, 


1975 




1976 


1976 




Index 


1967=100 




191 




196 


196 


187 




187 


176 


196 




222 


240 


181 




302 


340 


183 




195 


195 


168 




175 


177 


184 




199 


199 



104 



101 



101 



1971 1972 
INDEX, 1967=100 



1973 



1974 



1975 1976 



240 



220 



200 



180 



160 



140 



120 



100 



80 ' 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



PRODUCTIVITY & COSTS 

Private Business 
Productivity Up 
3.6% in 2nd Quarter 

Productivity (output per iiour 
of all persons in the private 
business sector) rose at a 
3.6-percent seasonally-adjust- 
ed annual rate in the second 
quarter. This was about half 
the first quarter 7.5-percent 
rate (revised). The private- 
business productivity gain 



69 



reflected a 5.4-percent increase 
in output, on an annual 
basis, and a 1.8-percent 
increase in hours worked. 

Unit labor costs increased 
3.6 percent (at annual rates). 
Real compensation per hour- 
hourly compensation adjusted 
for changes in the Consumer 
Price Index— increased 2.5 
percent to a record high of 
114.2 percent of its 1967 
average. 



Productivity in Manu- 
facturing Up 7.8% 
in First Half 

In manufacturing, productivity 
rose at a 7.8-percent season- 
ally-adjusted annual rate, 
somewhat higher than the 
first quarter 5.1 -percent 
pace. 

Unit labor costs rose 2 
percent as the productivity 
increase blunted the 10- 



percent gain in hourly 
compensation. Real hourly 
compensation jumped 5.2 
percent (annual rates). 



INDEX,1967=100 



Productivity and Costs, 
Private Business Sector 



90 



UNIT LABOR 
COSTS- 



OUTPUT PER HOUR. 
OF ALL PERSONS 




170 ■ 



160' 



150' 



140' 



130- 



120- 



110' 



100- 



1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



90- 



INDEX, 1967=100 

\ I \ r 

Productivity and Costs, 
Manufacturing 




UNIT LABOR- 
COSTS 



/^ 



OUTPUT PER 
•HOUR OF ALL- 
PERSONS 



REAL COMPENSATION 
PER HOUR 



I t u 



1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



PERCENT CHANGE RATES 

SEASONALLY ADJUSTED ANNUAL RATES 



20- 
10- 
0- 
-10- 
-20- 


1 1 1 1 

Output Per Hour of All Persoi 

Private Business Sector 

1 1 1 


is. 


























n 




JL 


fLn 




r^ 


■~] 


J^ 


L 




J 


— 1 








J L 






^ 


^ 


J 




^ 1 1 






— 1 — 1 — I— 






—1 1 1— 









1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



PRODUCTIVITY & COSTS 



2ND 
QTR. 
1975 



1ST 
QTR. 
1976 



PRIVATE BUSINESS SECTOR 

Output per Hour of All Persons 111.3 

Unit Labor Costs 160.8 

Real Compensation per Hour 112.2 

MANUFACTURING 

Output per Hour of All Persons 113.1 

Unit Labor Costs 158.3 

Real Compensation per Hour 112.2 

PERCENT CHANGE, SEASONALLY- 
ADJUSTED ANNUAL RATES 
Private Business Sector 



Index, 1967=100 

115.2 
164.7 
113.4 



120.9 
155.4 
112.3 



2ND 
QTR. 
1976 



116.2 
166.2 
114.2 



123.2 
156.1 
113.7 



Output per Hour of All Persons 


4.4 


7.5 


3.6 


Unit Labor Costs 


3.3 


3.2 


3.6 


Real Compensation per Hour 


1.8 


6.1 


2.5 


Manufacturing 








Output per Hour of All Persons 


9.0 


5.1 


7.8 


Unit Labor Costs 


-1.4 


4.3 


2.0 


Real Compensation per Hour 


1.4 


4.8 


5.2 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



70 WORLD TRADE: INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES 



Exports and imports of in- 
dustrial countries, account- 
ing for roughly two-thirds 
of total world trade, rose 
more slowly in 1975. A 
summary of trends in the top 
five industrial nations 
follows: 

UNITED STATES: The U.S. 
continued as the world's 
foremost trader in 1975. 
Exports rose $9.1 billion 
to 8107. 7 billion, and imports 



fell $4.6 billion to $103.4 
billion, resulting in a trade 
surplus of S4.2 billion 

JAPAN: Exports rose 
S263 million to $55.8 billion 
and imports declined $4.3 
billion to $57.9 billion. 
This narrowed Japan's trade 
deficit to $2 billion. 

FRANCE: Exports rose 
$6.5 billion following a 
$9.8 billion advance in 1974. 
Imports continued to rise. 



but at a much slower pace- 
up $1.1 billion compared to 
$15.2 billion in 1974. 

GERMANY: Exports, which 
had climbed more than $40 
billion from 1972 to 1974, 
rose $918 million in 1975 
to $90.2 billion. Imports 
rose $5.4 billion to $75 
billion. Exports exceeded 
imports by $15.2 billion. 

UNITED KINGDOM: Exports 
rose $5.2 billion to $44.1 



billion and imports declined 
$961 million to $53.6 bil- 
lion. This resulted in a 
contraction in the trade 
deficit from $15.6 billion 
in 1974 to $9.4 billion in 
1975. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



BILLIONSOF DOLLARS 





United States 


^ 


^^ IMPORTS 






y^' 


EXPORTS 






^ 






^^ 























1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



BILLIONSOF DOLLARS 





Japan 




^___^ IMPORTS 






^^ 


^EXPORTS 




:^=== — " 















1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



BILLIONSOF DOLLARS 




1972 1973 

SOURCE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND 



1974 



1975 



100 



80 



60 



40 



20 



Germany 




EXPORTS 








^^ 


IMPORTS 


^::-^ 


"^ 

















1972 



1973 



1974 



197 



80 



BILLIONSOF DOLLARS 



60 



20 



United Kingdom 




IMPORTS 



EXPORTS 



1972 



1973 



1974 



WORLDTRADE: 

SELECTED INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES 1972 



1974 



1971 



1975 











Billions of U.S. 


Dollars 




INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES, 

Exports 

Imports 


TOTAL" 


275.8 
281.3 




503.3 
543.8 




536.9 
545.9 


UNITED STATES 

Exports 

Imports 






49.8 
58.9 




98.5 
108.0 




107.7 
103.4 


JAPAN 
Exports 
Imports 






28.6 
23.5 




55.5 
62.1 




55.8 
57.9 


FRANCE 

Exports 

Imports 






26.5 
27.0 




46.5 
52.9 




53.0 
54.0 


GERMANY 
Exports 

Imports 






46.7 
40.4 




89.3 
69.6 




90.2 
75.0 


UNITED KINGDOM 

Exports 

Imports 






24.3 
27.9 




38.9 
54.5 




44.1 
53.6 


'United States, Canada, Japan 
Belgium, Denmark, France, G 


Austria, 
ermany, 


Italy, Nether 
Switzerland, 


lands, Norway, Sweden, 
United Kingdom. 



WORLD TRADE: LESS DEVELOPED AREAS 



71 



OIL-EXPORTING COUNTRIES: 

The value of exports from 
oil-exporting nations nearly 
tripled in 1974, but declined 
during 1975. Imports rose 
more during 1975. 

Exports from Iran, valued 
at $21.6 billion in 1974- 
three times the 1973 total, 
declined $1.6 billion in 
1975. Imports nearly doubled, 
reaching $1 1 billion. 



Exports from Saudi Arabia, 
the major oil-exporting na- 
tion, declined $3.3 billion 
in 1975, a sharp contrast 
to 1974 when exports jumped 
from $9.1 billion to $31.1 
billion. Imports rose a 
further $2.9 billion in 
1975 to $7.3 billion. 
OTHER WESTERN HEMIS- 
PHERE: The rise in exports 
from Brazil— up $704 million 
to $8.7 billion— was less than 



half the 1974 gain. Imports 
declined $604 million to 
$13.6 billion. The trade 
deficit was narrowed from 
$6.2 billion in 1974 to 
$4.9 billion in 1975. 
OTHER ASIA: Exports from 
Hong Kong rose $375 million 
in 1975 compared to a $889 
million gain in 1974. Imports, 
which had advanced $1.1 bil- 
lion the previous year, were 



virtually unchanged at 
$6.8 billion. 

Following a gain of $2.1 
billion in 1974, exports 
from Singapore declined $435 
million to $5.4 billion. 
Imports, which jumped $3.2 
billion during 1974, edged 
down $247 million to $8.1 
billion. The trade deficit 
rose from $2.6 billion in 
1974 to $2.8 billion in 1975. 



40 



BILLIONS OF U.S. DOLLARS 



30 



20 



10- 



Oil-Exporting Countries —Iran 



EXPORTS 



■IMPORTS 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



40 



30 



20 



10 



BILLIONS OF U.S. DOLLARS 



Oil-Exporting Cour 


tries— Saudi Arabia 








\ 

EXPORTS 




/ 






f 


'*'"'^"'^- IMPORTS 





1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



20. 



BILLIONS OF U.S. DOLLARS 



15 



10 



! 5- 



Other Western Hemisphere — Brazil 



IMPORTS 



"7^ 



■EXPORTS 



1972 1973 1974 

SOURCE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND 



1975 



20 ■ 



BILLIONS OF U.S. DOLLARS 



15 ■ 



10 



Other Asia 
Hong Kong 



IMPORTS 



EXPORTS 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



20 



15 



10 



BILLIONS OF U.S. DOLLARS 



Other Asia 
Singapore 










IMPORT?^ 




^^^-^ 




■===- 


' 


^ EXPORTS 



1972 



1973 



1974 



WORLD TRADE: 

LESS DEVELOPED AREAS 



1972 



1974 



1975 



1975 









Billions of U.S. 


Dollars 


OIL-EXPORTING COUNTIES, 


TOTAL* 








Exports 




28.8 


126.6 


116.3 


Imports 




15.5 


38.8 


68.3 


IRAN 










Exports 




4.8 


21.6 


20.0 


Imports 




2.4 


5.7 


11.0 


SAUDI ARABIA 










Exports 




5.5 


31.1 


27.8 


Imports 




1.1 


4.4 


7.3 


OTHER WESTERN HEMISPHERE- 








BRAZIL 










Exports 




4.0 


8.0 


8.7 


Imports 




4.8 


14.2 


13.6 


OTHER ASIA- 










HONG KONG 










Exports 




3.4 


6.0 


6.3 


Imports 




3.9 


6.8 


6.8 


SINGAPORE 










Exports 




2.2 


5.8 


5.4 


Imports 




3.4 


8.4 


8.1 



'Algeria, Bahrain, Brunei, Ecuador, Gabon, 
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, 
Nigeria, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, 
Trinidad and Tobago, United Arab Emirates, 
Venezuela. 



72 EXPORTS & IMPORTS 



June Foreign Trade 
Deficit $377 Million; 
Imports Hit New High 

The merchandise trade balance 
posted the fifth deficit in 
the last 6 months in June. 
Imports rose sharply, exceed- 
ing exports by S377 million. 
A surplus of $396 million was 
recorded in May, the first 
since December 1975. The 
June shortfall brought the 



total second-quarter deficit 
to $184 million, considerably 
narrower than the $874 mil- 
lion reported in the first 
quarter of 1976. 

Total exports, which in- 
creased more slowly in June, 
rose $138 million (1.4 per- 
cent) to a new high of $9.7 
billion. Exports of domestic 
nonagricultural commodities, 
led by a 33.4-percent rise 
in aircraft and parts, rose 



$120 million to $7.7 billion. 
Exports of domestic agricul- 
tural commodities declined 
$51 million to $1.9 billion. 

Total imports jumped $857 
million (9.3 percent) to a 
record $10 billion. Imports 
excluding petroleum, reflect- 
ing large increases in manu- 
factured goods and farm 
products, climbed $394 million 
to $7.5 billion. Imports of 
petroleum products, rising 



about $720 million (34.4 
percent), returned to its 
near-record high of $2.8 
billion posted in April. 
Petroleum imports are more 
than double the year-ago 
level of $1.4 billion. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




-2 -^ 





JUNE 


MAY 


JUNE 


EXPORTS & IMPORTS 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Billions of Dollars 




MERCHANDISE TRADE BALANCE 


1.612 


0.396 


-0.377 


EXPORTS, TOTAL 


8.72 


9.58 


9.72 


Domestic Nonagricultural Commodities 


7.12 


7.55 


7.67 


Domestic Agricultural Commodities 


1.50 


1.95 


1.90 


IMPORTS, TOTAL 


7.10 


9.18 


10.04 


Imports Excluding Petroleum 


5.74 


7.09 


7.49 


Petroleum Imports 


1.36 


2.09 


2.81 



1971 1972 1973 



1974 1975 



1976 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



12 



10 



Export 


S 






























* ^ 


J 






TOTAL EX 


PORTS — 














f-/ 


/ 








/J 


-~v 


f 








r UUMbbllU 
/'^^^NONAGRICULT 
/ COMMODITIES 


URAL 


< 


. y 


/ 








j-u-til/i 


W^ 


/ 
















i. 








V*^ DC 


MESTIC 
iRICULTUR/ 
MMODITIES 


A 


\r 


— \> 




CC 







1971 1972 1973 
SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



1974 



1975 



1976 



12 



10 



Import 


i 
































n 




TC 


)TAL IMPOR 


TS — 








1 
PETROLEUIV 






A/ 




IMPORTS 


> 








:A 


\ 


A 










X/lMPC 
'^EXC 


)RTS 

LUDING 
ROLEUM 










PET 



















































1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



FEDERAL GOVERNMENT RECEIPTS & EXPENDITURES 



73 



2nd Quarter Deficit 
Down $10.3 Billion 
to $53.5-Billion Rate 

The Federal Government's 
deficit, as measured in the 
national income and product 
accounts (NIPA), continued 
to decline in the second 
quarter of 1976, dropping to 
$53.5 billion (seasonally- 
adjusted annual rate). This 
was $10.3 billion less than 



the first quarter deficit. 
The decline resulted from an 
$8.7-billion increase in 
receipts and a $1.6-billion 
decrease in expenditures. 

Federal Government expen- 
ditures in the second quarter 
dropped to $378.7 billion, 
mainly due to decreases in 
transfer payments and grants- 
in-aid to State and local 
governments. Declines in 
grants for child nutrition. 



wastewater treatment facili- 
ties, and health accounted 
for the overall drop in 
grants-in-aid to State and 
local governments. 

Receipts rose $8.7 billion 
to a rate of $325.2 billion. 
Continued growth in wages 
and salaries resulted 
in increases of $4.2 bil- 
lion in personal tax payments 
and $1.7 billion in social 
insurance contributions. 



Corporate profit tax lia- 
bilities increased $2.4 
billion. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



400 




400 



360 



320 



280 



240 



200 



1971 



1972 1973 



1974 



1975 1976 




160 



120 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



20 



-20 



-40 




-60 



-80 



I'lOO 



I 



Federal Government Deficit 



120 -J — ' — <- 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 





2nd 


1st 


2nd 


FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 


QTR 


QTR 


QTR 


RECEIPTS& EXPENDITURES 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Billions of Dollars 




EXPENDITURES, TOTAL 


354.3 


380.3 


378.7 


Purchases of Goods and Services 


122.4 


129.2 


131.2 


Transfer Payments 


149.7 


160.3 


158.7 


Grants-ln-Aid to State and 








Local Governments 


53.2 


58.8 


56.3 


Other Expenditures 


29.0 


32.0 


32.5 



RECEIPTS, TOTAL 254.4 316.5 325.2 

Personal Tax and Nontax Receipts 99.7 137.7 141.9 

Corporate Profits Tax Accruals 38.7 53.1 55.5 

Social Insurance Contributions 92.9 102.9 104.6 
Indirect Business Tax and 

Nontax Accruals 23.2 22.8 23.3 

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT DEFICIT -99.9 -63.8 -53.5 



74 CONSUMER INSTALLMENT CREDIT 



P 



Expansion of Consumer 
Credit Slows in June 
to $1.33 Billion 

The overall expansion of 
consumer installment credit 
outstanding slowed from 
SI. 47 billion in May to 
Si. 33 billion in June, 
resulting from credit 
liquidations increasing 
at a more rapid rate than 
extensions. Liquidations 



rose 5.1 percent to $14.26 

billion while extensions 
climbed only 3.7 percent 
to S15.59 billion. 

A gain of only S526 
million in automobile 
credit in June compared to 
the May rise of S652 million 
accounted for most of the 
reduced growth in credit 
outstanding. "All Other" 
credit recorded a S654 
million increase in June, 



which comprised nearly 
one-half of the total gain 
in credit outstanding. 

Commercial bank holdings 
rose S410 million following 
last month's rise of $713 
million. Credit union 
holdings increased $482 
million 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



\ \ 

Consumer Installment Credit 



->at 



/ 



^R ^ 



.EXTENSIONS 



■LIQUIDATIONS 



.NET CHANGE IN CONSUMER 
INSTALLMENT CREDIT OUTSTANDING" 




. '] ,.1 Lit-l-LLL I 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 

TYPE OF CONSUMER INSTALLMENT CREDIT 



1976 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




I...........I.......I11.I..1.....1..I .t..l........n.l....t...n.l. 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



^^s 



1 I 1 r 

"All Other" Credit 



EXTENSIONS 



LIQUIDATIONS 



(Consists of Consumer 
' Goods Other Than 

Automobile and Personal 
'Loans) 



' .■■■■I... I 





JUNE 


MAY 


JUNE 


CONSUMER CREDIT 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Millions of Dollars 




TOTAL INSTALLMENT CREDIT 








Extensions 


13,187 


15,041 


15,592 


Liquidations 


12,738 


1 3,566 


14,261 


Net Change in Credit Outstanding 


+449 


+ 1,475 


+ 1,331 


BYTYPE OF CREDIT 








Automobile 








Extensions 


3,865 


4,471 


4,600 


Liquidations 


3,727 


3,819 


4,074 


Net Change in Credit Outstanding 


+ 138 


+ 652 


+ 526 


"All Other" 








Extensions 


6,700 


7,429 


7,786 


Liquidations 


6,456 


6,859 


7,132 


Net Change in Credit Outstanding 


+244 


+570 


+654 


BY HOLDER OF CREDIT 








Commercial Banks 








Extensions 


6,195 


7,223 


7,289 


Liquidations 


6,079 


6,510 


6,879 


Net Change in Credit Outstanding 


+ 116 


+713 


+410 


Credit Unions 








Extensions 


1,900 


2,448 


2,456 


Liquidations 


1,628 


1,927 


1,974 


Net Change in Credit Outstanding 


+272 


+521 


+ 482 



HOLDERS OF CONSUMER INSTALLMENT CREDIT 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 





1111 

Commercial Banks 






















r 


XTENSION 


S 






/ 


'J 


^tr\ 


' V 


V 






J 


/^ 














— Li 


OUIC 


ATIC 


NS 




































iiiiit 


■■lllllllll 


■iiiiiiiiii 


■■■■■■tiiii 








BILLIONSOF DOLLARS 






1 1 1 

Credit Unions 




















6 - 















5 - 

4 -J 














3 - 






,EX 


TENS 


IONS 





2 - 




-jL 


f^ 


►^ 


¥^— 


1 - 
n 


■jiiiiiiiii 


AT 


-Lie 


UID/ 


^ 1 

aiONS — 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE 



Section IV 



Other 
trends 



75 



Public Use of National 
Parks 

Systemwide Visitation to 
National Park System Areas: 
1973-1975 76 

National Park System Areas 
Reporting Public Use, by 
Management Category: 1975 
77 

Volume of Public Use, by 
Type of Visit: 1975 77 

Volume of Recreational 
Visits, by Management 
Category: 1975 77 

Patent Activity 

Patents Issued: 1960-1975 
78 

Patents Issued for Inventions: 
1960-1975 78 

Patents Issued to U.S. 
Residents, by Selected State: 
1975 78 

Ratio of Population to Patents 
Issued to U.S. Residents: 
1975 78 

Patents Issued to Residents 
of Foreign Countries: 1975 
78 



Organizational Patent 

Applications in Six Selected 

Industries Combined: 

1965-1973 

By Industry 79 

Organizational Patent 

Applications per Million 

Dollars R&D Funding in Six 

Selected Industries Combined: 

1965-1973 

By Industry 79 

Professional R&D Manpower 

per Organizational Patent 

Application in Six Selected 

Industries Combined: 

1965-1973 

By Industry 79 

Drug Abuse 

Leading Drugs of Abuse 
July 1973-April 1975 80 

Drug Abuse, by Sex: April 
1974-April 1975 80 
Motivation of Drug Abuse: 
April 1974-April 1975 80 

Selected Leading Drugs of 
Abuse as Reported in Drug- 
Related Deaths by Medical 
Examiners: April 1974-April 
1975 81 



Energy Use in 
Manufacturing 

Fuels and Electric Energy 
Consumed by Manufactures, 
Cost per 1,000 Kilowatt-Hour 
Equivalents Purchased: 1974 
82 

Electric Energy Consumed by 
Manufactures, Cost per 1,000 
Kilowatt-Hour Purchased: 1974 
83 

Fuels Consumed by 
Manufactures, Cost per 1,000 
Kilowatt-Hour Equivalents 
Purchased: 1974 84 

Women-Owned Businesses 

Firms and Receipts for Firms 
Owned by Women as a Percent 
of All U.S. Firms and Receipts: 
1972 85 

Firms and Receipts for Firms 
Owned by Women, by Industry 
Division: 1972 85 

Percent Distribution of Firms 
and Receipts for Firms Owned 
by Women, by Size of Firm: 
1972 85 

Percent Distribution of Firms 
and Receipts for Firms Owned 
by Women, by Legal Form of 
Organization: 1972 85 



76 PUBLIC USE OF NATIONAL PARKS 



'75 Park Use Increases 
Following 2- Year Drop 
Due to Energy Crisis 

Visitation to National 
Park System areas increased 
substantially throughout 
1975 following declines in 
1973 and 1974 brought on 
by the energy crisis. Total 



reported 1975 visitation 
increased by 21.4 million, 
or 9.8 percent, over the 
reported 1974 use. (The 
aggregate comparison is 
somewhat distorted by 
changes in counting pro- 
cedures at several parks 
and by addition of new 
areas' data. On an adjust- 



ed basis, visitation rose 
7.5 percent between 1974 
and 1975.) 

Public use of National 
Park System facilities is 
characterized by highly 
divergent seasonal patterns, 
attributable primarily to 
weather variations and to 
traditional vacation pat- 



terns. Most areas exper- 
ience the largest number 
of users during the summer 
months, with nearly 50 per- 
cent of total annual recrea- 
tional visitation occurring 
during June, July, and 
August. A few southern 
parks experience different 
seasonal patterns. 



MILLIONS OF VISITS 




JAN. FEB. MAR. 



APR. MAY JUNE 



JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. 



NUMBER OF VISITS PER MONTH 



1973 



1974 



1975 



Calendar Year Total 
January 
March 
May 
July 

September 
November 





Millions of Visits 




15.58 


217.44 


238.85 


8.88 


7.82 


8.93 


12.29 


11.05 


13.20 


19.76 


19.02 


21.77 


34.04 


34.66 


39.39 


19.49 


21.87 


20,95 


11.28 


11.77 


13.58 



SOURCE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



II 



PUBLIC USE OF NATIONAL PARKS 



77 



Recreation Visits 
to National Parks 
Total 190 Million 

Of the 259 National Park 
System areas reporting 
public use during 1975, 
more than half were in the 
historical category, in- 
cluding approximately 150 
historic homes, battle 
fields, and monumental 
structures. The next 



largest management category 
was comprised of natural 
areas such as deserts, 
rivers, coastal islands, 
and volcanoes. 

Nearly 80 percent of all 
reported visits to National 
Park System areas were for 
recreational purposes. The 
remainder of the public use 
volume was generally attri- 
butable to commuters who 
were not using the areas as 



recreational facilities. 

Although the recreational 
category was the third 
largest of the four major 
management categories the 
areas in this category 
reported the largest volume 
of public recreational 
visits— nearly 70 million. 
Areas in the historical 
category ranked second, 
reporting 59 million visits. 





NUMBER OF AREAS 














150 




140 J 
120 - 


- 




National Park System 
Areas Reporting Public 
Use, by Management 
Category: 1975 


100 - 


- 




- 


80 - 


- 


70 






- 


60 - 


- 






40 - 


- 










38 




20 - 






- 


n _ 




'- ■ - - 










1 



NATURAL 
CATEGORY 



HISTORICAL 
CATEGORY 



RECREATIONAL 
CATEGORY 



NATIONAL 

CAPITAL 

PARKS 





MILLIONS OF VISITS 














200 - 


NONRECREATIONAL 
VISITS (48.4 MILLION) 




Volume of Public 
Use, by Type of 
Visit: 1975 


150 - 


RECREATIONAL VISITS 
(190.4 MILLION) 




- 


100 - 


- 




- 


50 - 
n 


TOTAL VISITS: 238.8 MILLION 




- 



Volume of Recreational Visits, 
by Management Category: 1975 

NATURAL CATEGORY, TOTAL 

NATIONAL PARKS 
OTHER NATURAL AREAS 

HISTORICAL CATEGORY 

RECREATIONAL CATEGORY, TOTAL 

NATIONAL PARKWAYS 
OTHER RECREATIONAL AREAS 

NATIONAL CAPITAL PARKS 

SOURCE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 




30 45 

MILLIONS OF VISITS 



78 PATENT ACTIVITY 



Number of Patents 
Issued to Foreign 
Residents Increases 

The total number of patents 

issued, as well as the num- 
ber of invention patents 
issued (which in 1975 
comprised about 94 percent 
of total patents) increased 
between 1960 and 1975, 
though fluctuating from 
year to year. Two princi- 



pal sources were responsible 
for the overall increase in 
invention patents— U.S. 
corporations and residents 
of foreign countries. 
While the number of U.S. 
patents issued to residents 
of foreign countries showed 
the greatest overall gain, 
U.S. corporations accounted 
for the largest proportion 
of invention patents issued 
from 1960 to 1975. 



California Leads 
in Patent Volume 
Issued to Inventors 

California led the nation 
in the number of patents 
issued to inventors— 6,780 
in 1975. New York ranked 
second with 4,909; Illinois, 
third with 3,955; New Jersey, 
fourth with 3,909; and 
Pennsylvania, fifth with 
3,538. 



Delaware had the lowest 
ratio of population to 
patents— 1,171 persons per 
patent. 

Residents of foreign 
countries received 26,271 
patents. Japan led with 
6,574; the Federal Republic 
of Germany was second with 
6,171; United Kingdom, thirc 
with 3,158; France, fourth 
with 2,436; and Switzerland, 
fifth with 1,473. 



THOUSANDS 



Number of U.S. Pat 


ents Issued 


/^ 




y***v .''V- 


A 


/ 


^^TOTA 


f 


-A./ 






v^ 




























■ III 






THOUSANDS 






















Patents Issued to U.S. Residents, by Selected State: 

6.78 


1975 


^ - 








4.91 












3.96 




3.91 




















n - 







CALIFORNIA NEWYORK ILLINOIS NEW PENNSYLVANIA 

JERSEY 



a nf\n — 


RATIO 






















3,000 - 


Ratio of Population to Patents Issued 
to U.S. Residents: 1975 


2,803 




2,858 




2,000 - 




1,837 




1,865 
















1,171 












1,000- 

n _ 









1960 



1965 



1970 



1975 



DELAWARE CONNECTICUT NEW 

JERSEY 



ILLINOIS MASSACHUSETTS 



THOUSANDS 



THOUSANDS 



Patents Issued for Inventions 



\ 



INVENTIONS, TOTAL 



U.S. CORPORATIONS 





FRANCE SWITZERLAND 



PATENT ACTIVITY 



1960 



1970 



1975 



)tal Patents 


49,829 


Inventions 


47,170 


U.S. Corporations 


28,187 


U.S. Individuals 


11,041 


U.S. Government 


1,244 


Foreign Residents 


7,698 



Number 

67,962 76,426 

64,427 71,994 

36,896 34,577 

8,451 10,430 

1,726 1,596 

17,354 25,391 



1960 



1965 



1970 



1975 



SOURCE PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE 



PATENT ACTIVITY 

Patent Applications 
in Selected Industries 
Declined Since 1969 

Patents in this report are 
the total number of appli- 
cations which subsequently 
mature into patents that 
were filed by U.S. organi- 
zations (government and 
industry) in six selected 
industries. Since 1969, 
patent applications have 



79 



declined 20 percent, due 
to substantial declines in 
each selected industry, 
ranging from a 29-percent 
decline in food industries 
to a 17-percent drop in 
scientific instruments. 

The number of patent 
applications per million 
dollars of R&D (research 
and development) funding 
has declined 34 percent to 
3.3 applications per million 



dollars in 1973. Fabricated 
metal product industries 
achieved the highest levels 
from 1965 through 1973, 
while food and electrical 
and communications equip- 
ment applied for the fewest 
number of patents per mil- 
lion dollars during those 
years. 

The number of man-years 
required per patent has 
risen 44 percent from 1966 



to 1973. The food and 
electrical and communica- 
tions equipment industries 
required the most manpower 
per patent in 1973. 

NOTE: R&D funding and 
manpower data have been 
lagged 2 years as an 
estimate of the time taken 
to develop a patentable 
invention and to file for 
that invention. 



THOUSANDS 




0-- 



Number of U.S. 
Organizational Patent' 
Applications in Six 



Selected Industries 
Combined: 1965-1973' 



1965 



1969 



1973 



on — 


THOUSANDS OF APPLICATIONS 




































































15- 

10- 

5- 

n- 


By Industry 






















1—1 ^^ 






r- 




- 




- 


- 


-1 


-n 


■■ 






n 


F 




n 




n 


" 


-^ 










— 




— 




- 




-1 








- 








- 






r-r-r-r-r-r-n-i-. 



'65 '69 '73 

FABRICATED 

METAL 

PRODUCTS 



'65 '69 '73 

SCIENTIFIC 
INSTRUMENTS 



'65 '69 '73 

MACHINERY 



'65 '69 '73 

CHEMICALS 



'65 '69 '73 

ELECTRICAL 

AND 

COMMUNICATIONS 

EQUIPMENT 



'65 



'69 
FOOD 



'73 



a _ 


THOUSANDS 










A 


^-^ 


^ 






^^ 


2- 

n- 


U.S. Organizational Patent 
.Applications per Million _ 
Dollars R&D Funding in 
Six Selected Industries .. .. 
Combined: 1965-1973 
. . . 1 . . . 



1965 



1969 



1973 



60 



PATENTS PER MILLION DOLLARS 



40- 



20- 



By Industry 



-m 



\\mWWM]mT^ 



TTTn rTTTT-rn-n m-TTTTrTn 



'65 '69 '73 

FABRICATED 

METAL 

PRODUCTS 



■65 '69 '73 

SCIENTIFIC 

INSTRUMENTS 



'65 '69 '73 
MACHINERY 



'65 '69 '73 
CHEMICALS 



'65 '69 '73 

ELECTRICAL 

AND 

COMMUNICATIONS 

EQUIPMENT 



'65 



'69 
FOOD 



'73 



THOUSANDS 



MAN-YEARS PER PATENT 




4-- 



Professional R&D 
Manpower per U.S. 



Organizational Patent 
2-1- Applications in Six. 



Selected Industries 
Combined: 1965-1973 



1965 



1969 



1973 




55 '69 '73 


'65 '69 '73 


■65 '69 '73 


■65 '69 '73 '65 '69 '73 '65 


'69 


FABRICATED 


SCIENTIFIC 


MACHINERY 


CHEMICALS ELECTRICAL 


FOOD 


METAL 


INSTRUMENTS 




AND 




PRODUCTS 






COMMUNICATIONS 
EQUIPMENT 





SOURCE PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE 



80 DRUG ABUSE 



Legal Drugs 
Linked to Many 
Abuse Episodes 

Two widely available legal 
drugs— the tranquilizer 
diazepam (commonly known 
by the brand name of Valium) 
and alcohol (in combination 
with other drugs)— were 
associated with the largest 
number of drug abuse epi- 
sodes reported by the Drug 



Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) 
during the period April 1974 
through April 1975. Diaze- 
pam, alcohol-in-combination, 
and heroin were associated 
with about one-quarter of 
all incidents of abuse 
during this period. Mari- 
juana was fourth on the 
list and aspirin fifth. 

Of the five most fre- 
quently cited drugs, diaze- 
pam and aspirin were men- 



tioned predominately by 
women. Heroin was men- 
tioned more often by men. 

Suicide attempts or 
gestures were the most fre- 
quently cited motivations 
of diazepam, alcohol-in- 
combination, and aspirin 
abuse. However, psychic 
effects were associated 
with 28 percent of alcohol- 
in-combination mentions 
Dependence was the major 



motivation involved in 
heroin abuse in 70 percent 
of mentions, while 79 per- 
cent cited psychic effects 
as motivation in marijuana 
mentions. 

NOTE: DAWN derived its 
April 1974-April 1975 date 
from 801 emergency room: 
336 medical examiners, 65 
crisis centers, and 63 
inpatient units. 



16 



PERCENT OF MENTIONS 



14- 



12- 



10- 



8- 



6- 



4- 



2- 



Leading Drugs of Abuse: July 1973-April 1975 



10 



8.2 



8.5 



7.9 



6.2 



JULY 1973-MARCH 1974 
APRIL 1974-APRIL 1975 



7.0 



5.2 



4.1 



4.1 



3.6 



DIAZEPAM 



ALCOHOL- 
IN-COMBINATION 



HEROIN 



MARIJUANA 



ASPIRIN 



100 



PERCENT OF MENTIONS 



50- 



Drug Abuse, by Sex: April 1974-April 1975 







DIAZEPAM 



ALCOHOL- 
IN-COMBINATION 



HEROIN 



MARIJUANA 



ASPIRIN 



PERCENT OF MENTIONS 



100- 



50- 



Motivation of Drug Abuse: April 1974-April 1975 



51 



16 



26 



79 



70 



28 



34 



26 



"y^^f 



19 



10 



PSYCHIC EFFECTS 



DEPENDENCE 

SUICIDE 
ATTEMPT/GESTURE 

OTHER 



62 



29 



DIAZEPAM ALCOHOL HEROIN 

IN-COMBINATION 

SOURCE DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION AND NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON DRUG ABUSE 



MARIJUANA 



ASPIRIN 



DRUG ABUSE 

Narcotic Analgesics, 
Barbiturates Associated 
With 45% of Drug Deaths 

Narcotic analgesics and 
barbiturate sedatives were 
implicated in 45 percent 
of drug-related deaths. 
Opiates such as morphine, 
heroin, and methadone were 
associated with 26 percent 
of drug-related deaths. 
(Deaths from heroin will 



!1 



appear low, but are, in 
fact, listed under morphine, 
as this is the substance 
identified through labora- 
tory findings. While heroin 
may be the ingested drug, 
it is metabolized to 
morphine). 

Barbiturates were next, 
corresponding to 19 percent 
-secobarbital, commonly 
available as Seconal and 
as generic secobarbital 



accounted for about one- 
quarter of barbiturate 
sedative-related deaths. 
D-Propoxyphene, which is 
marketed under brand names 
such as Darvon, Dolene, and 
SK-65 Compound, accounted 
for 5 of the total 8 per- 
centage points represented 
by nonnarcotic analgesics. 

NOTE: The term generally 
used throughout this report 



is medical examiner although 
it is recognized that in 
many States and localities 
the coroner system is in use. 



NARCOTIC 
ANALGESICS 

MORPHINE 

METHADONE 

HEROIN 

OTHER 

BARBITURATE 
SEDATIVES 

SECOBARBITAL 
OTHER 



ALCOHGL-IN- 
COMBINATION 



TRANQUILIZERS 

DIAZEPAM 
OTHER 

NONNARCOTIC 
ANALGESICS 

D-PROPOXYPHENE 

ASPIRIN 

OTHER 



NONBARBITURATE 
SEDATIVES 



PSYCHOSTIMULANTS 



STIMULANTS 



HALLUCINOGENS 



OTHER AND UNKNOWN 



26 



14 



19 



14 



13 



Selected Leading Drugs of 
Abuse as Reported in 
Drug-Related Deaths By 
Medical Examiners: 
April 1974-April 1975 



34 

~14 



J2 



'LESS THAN 0.5% 



18 



10 



1 

15 
PERCENT 



20 



25 



30 



SOURCE DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION AND NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON DRUG ABUSE 



82 ENERGY USE IN MANUFACTURING 



Manufacturers Face 
Regional Differences 
in Total Energy Costs 

During 1974, manufacturers' 
costs per 1,000 kilowatt-hour 
equivalents of purchased 
fuels and electric energy 
combined averaged S4.96. 
In 10 States, these costs 
averaged more than S7, while 
in 14 other States such costs 
averaged less than 84. 



The highest cost States are 
concentrated in the Northeast, 
while the Mountain and West 
South Central States are the 
lowest cost areas. 

Kilowatt-hour equivalent 
computations are based on a 
caloric or British thermal 
unit (Btu) value for each 
fuel with no regard to the 
efficiency of the fuel. 

Since some fuel uses are 
considerably more efficient 



than others but none are 
1 00-percent efficient, the 
kilowatt-hour equivalent 
represents the maximum amount 
of energy available, rather 
than the amount effectively 
utilized. 



Fuels and 
Electric Energy 
Consumed by 
Manufactures 

Cost per 1.000 

Kilowatt-Hour 

Equivalents 

Purchased: 

1974 




SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



ENERGY USE IN MANUFACTURING 



83 



Industrial Electricity 
Costs Lower in TVA, 
Northwest Regions 

Purchased electric energy 
costs for industrial use 
exhibit regional clustering. 
The 1974 cost per 1,000 kWh 
averaged over $20 in New 
England and between $15 and 
$20 in the North Central 
and several Southern Atlantic 
seaboard States. Electricity 



costs in the South Central 
and Southwestern States 
averaged between $1 and 
$15. 

The Pacific Northwest area 
produced the lowest priced 
electricity. Washington 
was particularly noteworthy 
with an average cost during 
1974 of $3.66, only 27 percent 
of the average nationwide 
cost of $13.80 per 1,000 kWh. 



Electric Energy 
Consumed by 
Manufactures 

Cost per 1,000 
Kilow/att-Hours 
Purchased: 1974 




COST (IN DOLLARS) 

20.00 or More 

15.00 — 19.99 

10.00—14.99 

9.99 or Less 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



84 ENERGY USE IN MANUFACTURING 



Manufacturing Fuels 
Most Expensive on 
Atlantic Coastline 

Prices paid for fuels by 
manufacturers during 1974 
were strongly correlated to 
geographical location. Only 
two States east of the Missis- 
sippi (Tennessee and Missis- 
sippi) had average fuel costs 
of under S3 per 1,000 kilo- 
watt-hour equivalents. Of 



the western States, only 
South Dakota, Oregon, and 
Washington were above the 
national average of S3. 31. 
Fuel costs were highest 
along the Atlantic coast, 
with the highest prices 
being paid by the North- 
eastern States. Costs aver- 
aged over $5 in each New 
England State and over $4 
in each Middle Atlantic 
State. 



Fuels Consumed 
by Manufactures 

Cost per 1,000 

Kilowatt-Hour 

Equivalents 

Purchased: 

1974 




SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



WOMEN-OWNED BUSINESSES 



85 



402,025 Women-Owned 
Businesses Make Up 
Only 4.6% of Total 

The volume of business con- 
ducted by women-owned firms 
in 1972 was but a small 
fraction of that year's 
total business activity. 
The 402,025 women-owned 
firms represented only 4.6 
percent of all U.S. firms 
(8,730,000) while the $8.1 



billion in receipts rep- 
resented 0.3 percent of all 
receipts ($2.4 trillion). 

In 1972, women-owned 
firms were highly concen- 
trated in selected services 
and retail trade. These 
firms accounted for 71 per- 
cent of all women-owned 
firms and 70 percent of 
their receipts. 

In 1972, 73 percent of 
women-owned firms had fewer 



than five employees, but 
accounted for only 42.6 per- 
cent of total receipts. 
Almost one-quarter of women- 
owned firms employed 5 to 19 
persons which represented 
43.8 percent of total 
receipts. 

The majority of women- 
owned firms operated as 
sole proprietorships and 
accounted for 88.7 
percent of receipts in 



1972. About 2 percent 
were partnerships, which 
accounted for 6.9 percent 
of receipts. Corporations 
represented only 0.3 percent 
of all women-owned firms 
and 4.4 percent of receipts. 



10- 



PERCENT 



5- 



Flrms and Receipts for Firms Owned by 
Women as a Percent of All U.S. Firms 
and Receipts: 1972 



4.6 



0.3 



FIRMS 



RECEIPTS 



Firms and Receipts for Firms Owned by Women, 
by Industry Division: 1972 



ALL 

INDUSTRIES, 

TOTAL 



CONSTRUCTION 



MANUFACTURING 



TRANSPORTATION 

AND PUBLIC 

UTILITIES 



WHOLESALE 
TRADE 



RETAIL 
TRADE 

FINANCE, 

INSURANCE, 

AND REAL 

ESTATE 

SELECTED 
SERVICES 



OTHER AND 

NOT CLASSIFIED 

INDUSTRIES 



600 





400 200 

FIRMS 

THOUSANDS 



-r 

5 10 

RECEIPTS 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



Percent Distribution of 
Firms and Receipts for 
Firms Owned by Women, 
by Size of Firm: 1972 




50 TO 99 



100 OR MORE 



100 



Percent Distribution of Firms and 
Receipts for Firms Owned by 
Women, by Legal Form of 
Organization: 1972 



SOLE 
PROPRIETORSHIPS 



PARTNERSHIPS >-, 



CORPORATIONS n 



98.0 



88.7 



1.7 
6.9 



4.4 



* LESS THAN 0.5% 



1 

50 
PERCENT 



100 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS AND OFFICE OF MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISE 



86 



notes & 
definitions 



NOTES 

Rounding— Detailed data in 
the tables may not agree 
with totals because of 
independent rounding. 
Furthermore, calculations 
shown in the text, such as 
percent and absolute changes, 
are based on the unrounded 
figures and, therefore, may 
not agree with those derived 
from rounded figures in the 
table. 

Seasonal Adjustment— Unless 
otherwise indicated, all data 
of less than annual frequency 
are seasonally adjusted by 
the source agency or exhibit 
no seasonal fluctuation. 

Survey and Sampling Error— 
The data in this chartbook 
come from a variety of sur- 
veys and other sources. Data 
from sample surveys are sub- 
ject to sampling error, and 
all the data are subject to 
possible nonsampling error 
due to nonresponse, report- 
ing, and analysis error. 
For more detailed explana- 
tions of the sampling and 
nonsampling errors asso- 
ciated with each series, 
contact the appropriate 
source. 



DEFINITIONS 

Section I 

PEOPLE 

World Population 

Less Developed Regions— In 

accord with the United Nations 
classification, include the 
countries of Africa; Asia, 
excluding Japan; Latin America, 
excluding Argentina, Chile, 
and Uruguay; and Oceania, 
excluding Australia and 
New Zealand. 

More Developed Regions— In 
accord with the United Nations 
classification, include the 
countries of Northern America 
and Europe, as well as Japan, 
Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, 
Australia, and New Zealand. 

Population and 
Components of Change 

In addition to data from 
the decennial censuses, 
estimates are based on statis- 
tics on births and deaths 
provided by the National 
Center for Health Statistics; 
statistics on immigration, 
provided by the Immigration 
and Naturalization Service; 
on civilian citizens abroad, 
provided by the Department of 
Defense and the Civil Service 
Commission; on movement 
between Puerto Rico and the 
U.S. mainland, provided by the 
Puerto Rico Planning Board; 
and on the Armed Forces, pro- 
vided by the Department of 
Defense. 



Birth Rates— Number of births 
in a year per thousand of the 
mid-year population. 

Household & Family 
Characteristics 

Family— A group of two or 
more persons related by 
blood, marriage, or adoption 
and residing together. 

Household— Consists of all 
the persons who occupy a 
housing unit, including 
related family members and 
all unrelated persons who 
share the housing unit. 

Nonfamlly household— Consists 

of a household head who 
either lives alone or with 
unrelated persons only. The 
count of households excludes 
group quarters (noninstitu- 
tlonal living arrangements 
for groups of five or more 
persons unrelated to the 
person in charge). 

Personal Income 

Income received by all 
individuals in the economy 
from all sources. 

Distributive Industries- 
Industries involved in the 
flow of goods and services 
from production to consump- 
tion, including buying, sell- 
ing, advertising, transport- 
ing, etc. 



Wage and Salary Disburse- 
ments—All employee earnings, 
including wages, salaries, 
bonuses, commissions, pay- 
ments in kind, incentive 
payments and tips, paid to 
employees in a given period 
of time, regardless of when 
earned. 

Federal Individual 
Income Tax Returns 

Adjusted Gross Income— This 

amount is the result of re- 
ducing gross income from all 
sources subject to tax by 
adjustments such as ordinary 
and necessary expenses of 
operating a trade or business 
and the deductible half of 
the excess of net long-term 
capital gain over net short- 
term capital loss. 

Average Federal Individual 
Income Tax— Federal individual 
income tax represents income 
tax liability after credits 
reported on individual income 
tax returns. In addition, 
beginning with 1970, addi- 
tional tax for tax prefer- 
ences ("minimum tax") is 
included. Also in 1970, a 
tax surcharge (amounting to 
2.5 percent) is included. 
Average tax was based on the 
number of returns with tax. 



87 



Nontaxable Returns— Taxability 
or nontaxability was determined 
by the presence or absence of 
income tax liability after 
credits or additional tax for 
tax preferences ("minimum tax") 
beginning with 1970. Many 
returns showed a liability 
for self-employment tax, tax 
from recomputing prior-year 
investment credit, or social 
security taxes on tip income; 
however, these taxes were 
disregarded for purpose of 
this classification. The 
1-year tax rebate in effect 
for 1974 returns was also 
disregarded for this classi- 
fication. 

Year— This represents the year 
in which the income was earned, 
not the year in which the 
tax return was filed. 

International Unemployment 

Quarterly and monthly figures 
for France, Germany, and the 
United Kingdom are calculated 
by applying annual adjustment 
factors to current published 
data and, therefore, should 
be viewed as only approximate 
indicators of unemployment 
under United States concepts. 
Published data for Canada and 
Japan require little or no 
adjustment. 



Employment and 
Unemployment 

Civilian Labor Force— All 
civilians 16 years old and over 
over who were employed or 
unemployed during a specified 
week. 

Employed Persons— Persons who 
did any work for pay or profit, 
worked 15 hours or more as 
unpaid workers in a family 
enterprise, or who were 
temporarily absent from their 
jobs for noneconomic reasons. 

Unemployed Persons— Persons 
not working but available and 
looking for work, on layoff 
from a job, or waiting to 
report to a new job. 



Special Feature 

THE ELDERLY 

Native of Native Parentage— 

A person born in the United 
States, both of whose parents 
were also born in the United 
States. 

Native of Foreign or Mixed 
Parentage— A person born in 
the United States, one or 
both of whose parents were 
born outside of the United 
States. 

Low-Income (Poverty) Level- 
Families and unrelated 
individuals are classified 
as being above or below the 
low-income or poverty level 
using the poverty index 
adopted by a Federal inter- 
agency committee in 1969, 
based on the Department of 
Agriculture 1961 Economy 
Food Plan. 

Personal Larcency— Theft of 
personal property or cash, 
either with contact (but 
without force or threat of 
force) or without contact 
between victim and offender. 

Burglary— Breaking or entering- 

Housebreaking, safecracking, 
or any breaking or unlawful 
entry of a structure with 
the intent to commit a felony 
or a theft. Includes attempt- 
ed forcible entry. 



Section II 

COMMUNITY 

Public Employment 

Full-time Equivalent Employee- 

The total number of employees 
discounted by applying average 
full-time earning rates. 
This is calculated by 
dividing the total payroll 
(full-time plus part-time) 
by the full-time payroll and 
multiplying this by the 
number of full-time employees. 

Earned Degrees Conferred 

The survey includes all 
degrees granted (except 
honorary) by all institutions 
in the aggregate United States 
that are identified as degree 
granting by the Education 
Directory, Higtier Education. 

Data for 1974-75 cover 1^19 
institutional units. The 
present classification of 
discipline specialties was 
adopted in 1970. 



Household Larceny— The unlaw- 
ful taking or stealing of 
property or articles without 
the use of force, violence 
or fraud. 



Motor Vehicle Theft— The 
unlawful taking or stealing 
of a motor vehicle, including 
attempts. 



88 



NOTES & DEFINITIONS- Continued 



Section III 

ECONOMY 

Gross National Product 

Personal Consumption 
Expenditures— The market 
value of goods and services 
purchased at cost by indi- 
viduals and nonprofit 
institutions or acquired by 
them as income in kind. 
Includes the rental value 
of owner-occupied dwellings, 
but not the purchases of 
dwellings. 

Services— Intangible commodities 
such as medical care, hair- 
cuts, and other personal 
care; railway, bus, and air 
transportation; and the use 
of housing. 

Fixed Irrvestment— Additions to 
and replacements of private 
capital brought about through 
net acquisitions by businesses 
and nonprofit institutions 
of durable equipment and 
structures for business and 
residential purposes. 

Nonresidential Fixed Invest- 
ment-Includes capital expendi- 
tures by the business sector, 
and nonprofit institutions 
for (1) new and replacement 
construction (e.g., buildings, 
stores, and warehouses) and 
(2) producers' durable equip- 
ment (e.g., machinery, office 
equipment, and motor vehicles). 



Change in Business Inventories— 

The value of the increase or 
decrease in the physical stock 
of goods held by the business 
sector valued in current 
period prices. 

Corporate Profits 

Profits From Current 
Production— Before-tax profits 
of corporations organized for 
profit adjusted to remove the 
effect of inventory profits; 
this is further adjusted to 
correct tax-return deprecia- 
tion to reflect current 
replacement costs and differ- 
ences between depreciation 
formulas allowable under the 
tax laws and actual service 
life. 

Undistributed Profits— The 
portion of a corporation's 
profit remaining after taxes 
and dividends are paid. 

Indirect Business Tax and 
Nontax Accruals— Tax liabilities 
paid by business, other than 
employer contributions for 
social insurance and corporate 
income taxes. Sales taxes, 
excise taxes, and real property 
taxes paid by businesses are 
the principal types of in- 
direct taxes. 



Composite Index of 
Leading Indicators 

A combined index of 
12 indicators of special- 
ized economic activities 
that usually record 
business-cycle peaks and 
troughs ahead of current 
general economic activity, 
thus providing an indication 
of the general direction of 
future shifts in business 
activity. 

industrial Production 

Industrial Production Index- 
Measures average changes in 
the physical volume of output 
produced by the Nation's 
factories, mines, and gener- 
ating plants. 

Major Market Groupings- 
Groupings of industries to 
reflect the end uses (or pri- 
mary customers) to which the 
goods are put. 

Capacity Utilization 

Actual output divided by 
capacity output. Capacity 
output is the maximum amount 
of output that can be pro- 
duced during a given time 
with existing plant and 
equipment. 

Manufacturing and Trade 
Sales and Inventories 

Inventory-to-Sales Ratio- 
Indicates the number of 
months supply of goods on 
hand at the current rate of 
sales. The respective ratios 
are derived by dividing the 
value of inventories at the 
end of a given period by 
the value of sales during 
the same period. 



Advance Retail Sales— July 

General Merchandise Group 
With Nonstores— Includes 
department stores, variety 
stores, general stores, and 
those selling general mer- 
chandise by mail and vending 
machine. 

Value of New Construction 

Value of New Construction 
Put in Place— Measures the 
estimated value of both private 
and public construction ac- 
tivity, including additions 
and alterations of existing 
structures. The estimates 
are intended to represent 
value of construction installed 
or erected during a given 
time period and cover the 
cost of labor and materials, 
as well as the cost of archi- 
tectural and engineering fees, 
charges for equipment and 
overhead, and profit on con- 
struction operations. 

Consumer Price Index 

Measures average changes 
in prices of a fixed 
market basket of goods 
and services bought by urban 
wage earners and clerical 
workers. It is based on 
prices of about 400 items 
obtained in urban portions of 
39 major statistical areas 
and 17 smaller cities, chosen 
to represent all urban areas 
in the United States. 



89 



Wholesale Price Index 

Measures average changes in 
prices of commodities sold 
in large quantities by pro- 
ducers in primary markets in 
the United States. The 
index is based on a sample 
of about 2,700 commodities 
selected to represent 
the movement of prices 
of all commodities produced. 

Agricultural Prices 

Ratio of Index of Prices 
Received by Farmers to 
Index of Prices Paid- 
Measures the purchasing power 
of products sold by farmers 
compared to their purchasing 
power In the base period. 
Above 100, products sold by 
farmers have an average per- 
unit purchasing power higher 
than in the base period. 
Below 100, the average per- 
unit purchasing power of 
commodities sold by farmers 
is less than in the base 
period. It Is a price com- 
parison, not a measure of 
cost, standard of living, or 
Income parity. 

Federal Government 
Receipts and Expenditures 

Federal Government Purchases 
of Goods and Services— Total 
Federal Government purchases 
for national defense and for 
nondefense purposes. 



Federal Government Transfer 
Payments— Income flows that 
represent a change in the 
distribution of national 
wealth. The primary com- 
ponents of Federal Government 
transfer payments are Social 
Security benefits and veterans' 
pensions. 

Corporate Profits Tax 
Accruals— Tax liabilities of 
corporations recorded on an 
accrual basis, i.e., the 
tax liabilities are assigned 
to the period when the 
profits are earned, rather 
than the period when the 
taxes are actually paid 
to the Internal Revenue 
Service or State govern- 
ments. 

Indirect Business Tax and 
Nontax Accruals— Tax liabili- 
ties paid by business, other 
than employer contributions 
for social insurance and 
corporate Income taxes. 
Sales taxes, excise taxes, 
and real property taxes paid 
by businesses are the prin- 
cipal types of Indirect 
taxes. 



Section IV 

OTHER TRENDS 

Public Use of National Parks 

Visitation— The entry of 
any person, except National 
Park Service personnel, onto 
lands or waters administered 
by the National Park 
Service. 

Management Categories 
(Natural, Historical, Recrea- 
tional)— Classifications of 
parks for which management 
policies have been promulgated 
by the National Park Service. 
National Capital Parks is an 
urban park system not truly 
comparable with the individual 
parks of the National Park 
System, and thus managed 
separately. 

Drug Abuse 

Nonmedical use of a substance 
for the following reasons: 
Psychic effects, dependence, 
or suicide attempt (or gesture). 
Nonmedical use means (1) 
use of prescription drugs in 
a manner inconsistent with 
accepted medical practice, 
(2) use of over-the-counter 
drugs contrary to approved 
labeling, (3) use of any 
substance— heroin, marijuana 
glue, aerosols, etc.— for the 
reasons cited above. 

Drug Abuse Related Death— 

(1) any death involving a 
drug "overdose" where a toxic 
level is found or suspected, 

(2) any death where the drug 
usage is a contributory factor, 
but not the sole cause, i.e., 
accidents, diseased state, etc. 



Episode— Contact made by a 
person to a facility (crisis 
center, hospital emergency 
room, medical examiner). 

Mention— Report of a drug 
associated with a given 
episode. As many as six 
drugs can be mentioned per 
episode. 



90 



sources 



Section I 

PEOPLE 

WORLD POPULATION 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, Inter- 
national Statistical Programs 
Center, World Population: 
1975. ISP-WP-75 
Contact: 
Carol Van Horn 301-763-2839 

POPULATION: 
COMPONENTS OF CHANGE 
U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, Current 
Population Reports, Series 
9-25. Nos. 632 and 635 
Contact: 
Jennifer Peck 301 -763-5184 

HOUSEHOLD AND 

FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, Current 

Population Reports, 1960 and 

1970 data: Series P-20, 

Nos. 266 and 282; 1976 data: 

not yet published 

Contact 

Arthur Norton 301 -763-51 89 

PERSONAL INCOME 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Survey of Current Business 

Contact: 

Pauline M. Cypert 

202-523-0832 

FEDERAL INDIVIDUAL 
INCOME TAX RETURNS 
U.S. Department of the 
Treasury, Internal Revenue 
Service, Preliminary Report, 
Statistics of Income— 1974, 
Individual Income Tax Returns. 
Other selected data: 
U.S. Department of the 
Treasury, Internal Revenue 
Service, Sfaf/sf/cs of Income, 
Individual Income Tax Returns, 
Selected Years 
Contact: 
Jack Blacksin 202^64-6111 



PUBLIC INCOME- 
MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS 
U.S. Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, Social 
Security Administration, 
Social Security Bulletin and 
Annual Statistical Supplement 
1973 
Contact: 
Alfred Skolnik 202-673-5765 

HOUSEHOLDS PURCHASING 
FOOD STAMPS 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, Current 
Population Reports, "Charac- 
teristics of Households 
Purchasing Food Stamps," 
Series P-23, No. 61 
Contact: 
John Coder 301 -763-5060 

INTERNATIONAL 
UNEMPLOYMENT 

U.S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

unpublished data derived from 

labor force surveys 

Contact: 

Constance Sorrentino 

202-523-9301 

EMPLOYMENT AND 
UNEMPLOYMENT 

U.S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

Ttie Employment Situation 

Contact: 

John Bregger 202-523-1944 

HEALTH-AMBULATORY 
CARE 

U.S. Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, 
National Center for Health 
Statistics, Monthly Vital 
Statistics Reports, "National 
Ambulatory Medical Care Survey 
of Visits to General and 
Family Physicians, January 
1974-December 1974," Vol. 25, 
No. 2, Supplement (2) 
Contact: 

Sandra Surber Smith 
301443-1200 



Special Feature 

THE ELDERLY 

Compiled from: 
U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, Current 
Population Reports, Series 
P-23, No. 57, "Social and 
Economic Characteristics of 
the Older Population: 1974" 
Contact: 
Elmore J. Seraile 
301-763-7571 
and 

Current Population Reports, 
Series P-23, No. 59, "Demo- 
graphic Aspects of Aging and 
the Older Population in the 
United States" 
Contact 
Jacob S. Siegal 
301-763-5784 

Additional Sources: 

Department of Transportation, 

Federal Highway Administration, 

Drivers Licenses: 1974 

Contact: 

Doris Groff Velona 

202-4264138 

Veterans Administration, 

Annual Report: 1975 

Contact: 

Robert Schultz 202-389-3677 



Section II 

COMMUNITY 

METROPOLITAN AREA 
RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, New 

Residential Construction in 

Selected Standard (Metropolitan 

Statistical Areas, Series C-21 

Contact: 

William K. Mittendorf 

301-763-7314 

and 

Population Estimates and 

Projections, Series P-25 

Contact: 

Marianne Roberts 

301-763-5313 



HOUSING VACANCIES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, Current 

Housing Reports, Series H-111 , 

No. 76-2 

Contact: 

Paul Harple 301-763-2880 

BLACK ELECTED OFFICIALS 

Joint Center for Political 

Studies, National Roster of 

Black Elected Officials: 1976, 

Vol. 6, July 1976 

Contact: 

Jean Fox 202-6384477 

PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, City 

Government Employment in 1975, 

GE 75, No. 2, and 

Local Government 

Employment in Selected 

Metropolitan Areas 

and Large Counties: 1975, 

GE 75, No. 3 

Contact: 

Alan V. Stevens 

301-763-2899 

MENTAL HEALTH 

U.S. Department of Health, 

Education, and Welfare, 

National Institute of Mental 

Health, Division of Biometry 

and Epidemiology, Survey and 

Reports Branch, various 

publications 

Contact: 

Dr. Richard W. Redick 

301-443-3343 

EDUCATION-EARNED 
DEGREES CONFERRED 

U.S. Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, 
National Center for Education 
Statistics, Earned Degrees 
Conferred: 1974-1975, Summary 
Data, and prepublication data 
Contact: 
Curtis O. Baker 
202-245-8392 



91 



Section III 

ECONOMY 

GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Survey of Current Business 

Contact: 

Leo Bernstein 202-523-0824 

CORPORATE PROFITS 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of Economic Analysis, 
Survey of Current Business 
Contact: 

Jacqueline Bauman 
, 202-523-0833 

i BUSINESS CONDITIONS 
INDICATORS 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Business Conditions Digest 

Contact: 

Feliks Tamm 301-763-7614 

INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 

Board of Governors of the 

Federal Reserve System, 

Federal Reserve Bulletin, and 

Industrial Production 

Statistical Release G-1 2.3 

Contact: 

Joan Hosley 202-452-2476 

CAPACITY UTILIZATION 
OF MATERIALS 

Board of Governors of the 

Federal Reserve System, 

Federal Reserve Bulletin and 

Industrial Production, 

Statistical Release G-1 2.3 

Contact: 

Larry Forest 202-452-2469 

MANUFACTURERS' SHIPMENTS 
AND ORDERS 

' U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, Current 
Industrial Reports, "Manu- 
facturers' Shipments, 
Inventories, and Orders," 
Series M3-1 
Contact: 
William Menth 301-763-2502 



MANUFACTURING AND TRADE 
SALES AND INVENTORIES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Survey of Current Business 

Contact: 

Teresa L. Weadock 

202-523-0782 

ADVANCE RETAIL SALES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, Advance 

Monthly Retail Trade Report 

Contact: 

Irving True 301 -763-7660 

AVERAGE RESIDENTIAL 
CONSTRUCTION TIME 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, Housing 

Starts, Series C-20 

Contact: 

William K. Mittendorf 

301-763-7314 

HOUSING STARTS AND PERMITS 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, 

Housing Starts, Series C-20 

Contact: 

William K. Mittendorf 

301-763-7314 

VALUE OF NEW CONSTRUCTION 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, 
Value of New Construction 
Put in Place, Series C-30 
Contact: 
Allan Meyer 301-763-5717 

CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 

U.S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statis'tics, 

777e Consumer Price Index 

Contact: 

Ken Dalton 202-523-1182 



WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX 

U.S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

Wholesale Price Index 

Contact: 

K.Hoyle 202-523-1913 

AGRICULTURAL PRICES 

U.S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, Crop Reporting Board, 
Agricultural Prices 
Contact: 
J. L. Olson 202-447-3570 

PRODUCTIVITY AND 
LABOR COSTS 

U.S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

Productivity and Costs in 

the Private Business Sector 

Contact: 

L. Fulco 202-523-9261 

WORLD TRADE 

International Monetary Fund, 
Bureau of Statistics, 
International Financial Sta- 
tistics 
Contact: 
Earl Hicks 202-477-2963 

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, High- 
lights of Exports and Imports, 
FT-990 
Contact: 
Harold Blyweiss 
301-763-7776 

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 
RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Survey of Current Business 

Contact: 

David Dobbs 202-523-0885 

CONSUMER INSTALLMENT 
CREDIT 

Board of Governors of the 

Federal Reserve System, 

Consumer Credit, Statistical 

Release G-1 9 

Contact: 

Reba Driver 202-452-2458 



Section IV 

OTHER TRENDS 

PUBLIC USE 

OF NATIONAL PARKS 

Department of the Interior, 

National Park Service, Public 

Use of the National Park 

System, Calendar Year Report: 

1975 

Contact: 

Neil Newton 

202-523-5270 

PATENT ACTIVITY 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Patent and Trademark Office, 

unpublished data, U.S. 

Department of Commerce 

News-PAT 76-8, 

Technology Assessment and 

Forecast-Sth Report 

Contact: 

Dr. John Terapane 

703-557-3875 

DRUG ABUSE 

U.S. Department of Justice, 
Drug Enforcement Administra- 
tion and U.S. Department of 
Health, Education, and Welfare, 
National Institute on Drug 
Abuse, Project Dawn III 
Contact: 
Dr. Philip Person 
301-443-2104 

ENERGY USE IN 
MANUFACTURING 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, Fuels 

and Electric Energy Consumed, 

M74(AS) -4.2 

Contact: 

John McNamee 301-763-5938 

WOMEN-OWNED BUSINESSES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, Office 
of Minority Business Enter- 
prise, Women-Owned Businesses, 
1972 
Contact: 
Cotty Smith 301-763-7690 



92 



index 



JULY 
1976 



Section I 

PEOPLE 

Population Estimates & 
Projections 4-7 

Selected Current 
Vital Statistics 8 

Births & 
Fertility 9 

Employment & 
Unemployment 10-12 

Labor Turnover 

in Manufacturing 13 

Average Workweek 14 
Personal Income 15 
Urban Family 
Budget 16-17 

Food Stamps 18-19 

School Enrollment 
Projections 20 

Private Health 
Insurance Coverage 21 

Characteristics 
of Women 22-26 



Special Feature 

HISTORICAL 
STATISTICS 
OF THE 
UNITED STATES 

Population 1610- 
1970 28 

A Nation of 
Immigrants 29 

Vital Statistics 30 
Employment 31 
Education and 
Social Welfare 32 
Elections and 
Politics 33 
National Income 
& Product 34 

Business and 
Financial Markets 35 

Prices: Historical 
Trends 36 
Manufacturing 37 

Housing & 
Construction 38 

Foreign Trade 39 

Agriculture 40 

Commjnication & 
Transportation 41 

Government 42 
Map of the Month 

DISTRIBUTION 
OF OLDER 
AMERICANS 46 49 



Section II 

COMMUNITY 

Local Government 
Revenue 44 

Public 

Labor-Management 
Relations 45 

General Housing 
Characteristics 50-53 

Crime Index 
Trends 54-55 

Criminal Justice 
Expenditures 56-57 

Voter Registration & 
Participation 58-61 

Transportation 
Trends 62 

Section II I 

ECONOMY 

Gross National 
Product 64-65 

Corporate 
Profits 66 

Business Conditions 
Indicators 67 

Industrial 
Production 68-69 

Manufacturing- 
Trade Sales & 
Inventories 70 

Advance Retail 
Sales-May 71 

Housing Starts 
& Permits 72 

New Home Sales 73 

Value of 

New Construction 74 

Consumer Price 
Index 75-77 



Wholesale Price 
Index 78 

Agricultural 
Prices 79 

Productivity 

and Labor Costs 80 

Exports & 
Imports 81 

Federal Government 
Receipts & 
Expenditures 83 

Money Supply Measures 
Consumer Installment 
Credit 84 

Section IV 

OTHER 
TRENDS 

Sources and 
Uses of Energy 86 

Energy Use in 
Manufacturing 87-89 

Pollution Abatement 
Expenditures 90 

Imports of Metals 
and Minerals 91 

SOURCES 9293 

NOTES AND 
DEFINITIONS 94 96 



index 

AUGUST 
1976 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The special feature on 
health was prepared in co- 
operation with the Division 
of Analysis, National Center 
for Health Statistics 
Health Resources Adminis- 
tration, Department of 
Health, Education, and 
Welfare. 



Dorothy P. Rice, Director, 93 
National Center for Health 
Statistics 

Jacob J. Feldman, 

Associate Director for 
Analysis 

Ronald W. Wilson, Acting 
Chief, Health Status and 
Demographic Analysis Branch, 
Division of Analysis 



Section I 

PEOPLE 

Selected Current Vital 
Statistics 4 

Population: Connponents 
of Change 5 

School Enrollment 6-8 

Educational Attainment 9 

Language Usage in the 
United States 10-11 

Personal Income 12 

Average Workweek 
& Real Earnings 13 

Employment & 
Unemployment 14-17 

Duration of Unemployment 
& Help-Wanted Index 17 

Public Employment 18 



Special Feature 

HEALTH 

National Health 
Expenditures 20-21 

Personal Health Care 
Expenditures 22-23 

Medical Care Prices 24 

Health Status 25 

Nonfederal Hospital Beds, 
by State 26 

Hospital Discharges 27 



Physician Visits 28 
Dentist Visits 29 
Nursing Homes 30-31 
Death Rates 32 
Infant Mortality 33 
Life Expectancy 34 



Map of the Month 

Convergence 
of Male 
Cardiovascular 
Disease Mortality 

and 

Percent With 
1.01 or More 
Persons per 
Room: 
1968-71 

42-45 



Section 1 1 

COMMUNITY 

Housing 
Quality 36-38 

Neighborhood 
Quality 3941 

Crime Index Trends 4647 

Inmates of State 
Correctional Facilities 4849 



Transportation Trends 50-51 
Public School Systems 52 



Section II I 

ECONOMY 

Gross National 
Product 54-55 

Industrial Production 56 

Manufacturing & Trade- 
Sales & Inventories 57 

Advance Report on 
Manufacturers' Durable 
Goods 58 

Advance Retail Sales 59 

Housing Starts & 
Permits 60 

New Home Sales 61 

Value of New 
Construction 62 

Exports & Imports 63 

Consumer Price Index- 
International Comparisons 64 

Consumer Price Index 65 

Wholesale Price Index 66 

Agricultural Prices 67 

Capacity Utilization 
in Manufacturing 68 

New Plant & Equipment 
Expenditures 69 



Consumer Installment 
Credit 70 

Public & Private 
Debt 71 

Interest Rates 72 



Section IV 

OTHER TRENDS 

Science & Engineering 
Personnel 74-75 

U.S. Passports Issued 76 

Adult Use of 
Tobacco 77-79 

Production & Imports: 
Steel, Coal, Crude Oil 80 

NOTES AND 
DEFINITIONS81-83 



SOURCES 84-85 



94 



INTRODUCTION -(Continued from page 2) 



r 



STATUS also provides list- 
ings of sources for the mate- 
rials presented. This enables 
readers needing more detailed 
data to follow up directly 
with the source agencies. 
STATUS contains a final sec- 
tion on notes and definitions. 
This section briefly describes 
caveats associated with the 
data, and defines the major 
terms or headings used in the 
charts. 



CAUTIONS 

The statistics originating 
from Federal agencies are not 
covered by copyright and may 
be reprinted from the pages 
of STATUS. Statistical 
materials originating from 
nongovernment sources should 
not be reprinted without 
formal permission from the 
copyright owners. 



The statistical materials 
used in STATUS are compiled 
from a number of Federal sta- 
tistical agencies and non- 
government sources. The 
Census Bureau is not respon- 
sible for limitations on data 
provided by other Federal 
agencies or other sources. 
The major caveats associated 
with these data are briefly 
described in the Notes and 
Definitions section. 



technical 
committee 



C. Louis Kincannon, Chairman 
Statistical Policy Division 
Office of Management and 
Budget 



Ago Ambre 

Current Business Analysis 

Division 
Bureau of Economic Analysis 
Department of Commerce 

Arthur Berger 

Office of Statistics 
Department of the Interior 

Jack Blacksin 

Statistics Division 
Internal Revenue Service 
Department of Treasury 

t John Curtis 

Office of Energy Systems Data 
Federal Energy Administration 
f Department of Transportation 

Ira Dye, Director 
Office of Transportation 
Systems Analysis and 

Information 
Department of Transportation 



Mary Golladay, Editor 
Condition of Education Report 
Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare 

Richard M. Hardesty 

Program Reporting Division 
Office of Planning and 

Management 
Environmental Protection 

Agency 

Douglas Henton 

Office of the Assistant 
Secretary for Planning and 
Evaluation 

Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare 

Denis Johnston 

Statistical Policy Division 
Office of Management and 
Budget 

Frederick V. Lilly, II 

Program Reporting Division 
Environmental Protection 
Agency 

Myrtle Nelson 

Office of Data Analysis 
Bureau of Labor Statistics 
Department of Labor 

Mitsuo Ono 

National Center for Social 

Statistics 
Department of Health, 

Education, and Welfare 

Davis A. Portner 

Office of Manpower Policy and 

Planning, 
Department of Labor 



Robert W. Raynsford 

Statistical Policy Division 
Office of Management and 
Budget 

James Reisa 

Office of Environmental Health 
Council on Environmental 
Quality 

Robert E. Ryan 

Management Data and 
Evaluation Division 

Department of Housing 
and Urban Develop- 
ment 

Harry A. Scarr 

Office of Justice Policy and 
Planning 
Department of Justice 

Robert Schultz 

Reports and Statistics Service 
Veterans Administration 

Richard G. Seefer 

Division of Planning & Policy 
Analysis 
Department of Labor 

Jerry J. Shipley 

Economic Policy Division 
Office of Management and 
Budget 



Stanley J. Sigel 

Office of Managing Director 
for Research and Economic 
Policy 

Federal Reserve Board 

John Stone 

Federal Reserve Board 

Theodore Torda 

Office of the Chief Economist 
Department of Commerce 

Murray S. Weitzman 

Population Division 
Bureau of the Census 
Department of Commerce 

George Wiggers 

Office of Transportation 

Systems Analysis and 

Information 
Department of Transportation 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
Bureau of the Census 

Washington, DC. 20233 



OFFICIAL BUSINESS 

SPECIAL FOURTH-CLASS RATE 
BOOK 



POSTAGE AND FEESPAID 

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

COM-202